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    实用英语写作技巧-第四单元 如何写推展句



    作者:abscottlee 阅读次数:5920


     
     
    [b]4[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]1[/b][b][font=宋体]段落的推展[/font][/b]
    [font=宋体]在前几单元中,我们谈到写段落的第一个步骤是写主题句。作者要对主题句在某些方面加以限制。第二个步骤将是写推展句。例如你要陈述你选择某院校的理由,第一步,写出主题句:[/font]
    There are two main reasons why I have decided to attend Bingston University next year[font=宋体].[/font]
    [font=宋体]第二步,以数个理由推展你的主题:[/font]
    [font=宋体]示范段落[/font]4-1
    [font=宋体]①[/font] There are two main reasons why I have decided to attend Bingston University next year[font=宋体].②[/font] First of all[font=宋体],[/font] there is the question of money[font=宋体]:[/font]Bingstonv's tuition is reasonable and I don[font=宋体]’[/font]t even have to pay it all at once[font=宋体].③[/font] This is very important[font=宋体],[/font] since my father is not a rich man[font=宋体].④[/font] With Bingston's [font=宋体]“[/font]deferred payment plan[font=宋体],”[/font] my father will be able to pay my tuition without too much difficulty[font=宋体].⑤[/font]The second resaon is the fine education which I feed will receive there in agriculture[font=宋体],[/font] my chosen field[font=宋体].⑥[/font] It is a well-known fact that Bingston hires only the finest professors in its Agriculture Department[font=宋体].⑦[/font] Moreover[font=宋体],[/font] the university reqires all agricultural students to get practical experience by working on farms in the areawhile they are still going to school[font=宋体].[/font]
    [b]4[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]2[/b][b][font=宋体]示范段落分析[/font][/b]
    [font=宋体]细节:[/font] two main reasons[font=宋体]:[/font]
    [font=宋体]理由[/font] 1[font=宋体]—[/font]financial consideration[font=宋体]②[/font]
    a[font=宋体].[/font] reasonable tuition[font=宋体]③[/font]
    b[font=宋体].[/font] deferred payment plan[font=宋体]④[/font]
    [font=宋体]理由[/font] 2[font=宋体]—[/font]quality of education[font=宋体]⑤[/font]
    a[font=宋体].[/font] fine teachers[font=宋体]③[/font]
    b[font=宋体].[/font] practical experience[font=宋体]⑦[/font]
    [font=宋体]在两个主要理由之下,作者用更小的细节支持它们。[/font]
    [font=宋体]由此可见,段落的推展依赖于支持主题句的细节([/font]details[font=宋体])。推展段落的方法很多。通常每个段落以一种方法为“支配方法”([/font] the dominant method[font=宋体]),必要时,可运用其它一种或数种方法作为“辅助方法”([/font] the supporting method[font=宋体])。上面的示范段落使用因果法([/font]cause-and-effect[font=宋体])作为支配方法,分类法([/font]division and classification[font=宋体])作为辅助方法。作者还运用了“重要性排列顺序”([/font]the order of importance[font=宋体])作为安排细节、组织段落的手段。我们将在以下各单元逐个讨论这些方法。[/font]
    [b]Exercise4-1[/b]
    Directions[font=宋体]:[/font] Read the following paragraphs and find out what details the authors use to support their topic sentences[font=宋体].[/font]
    [align=center][b][/b] [/align][align=center][b][font=宋体]([/font]1[/b][b][font=宋体])[/font][/b][/align][align=center][b][/b] [/align]Warm water freezes more quickly than cold[font=宋体].[/font] Sir Francis Bacon stated that almost four hundred years ago[font=宋体].[/font] But few people believedhim[font=宋体]—[/font]till 1970[font=宋体].[/font] In that year[font=宋体],[/font] Canadian scientist George Kell proved the English scholar right[font=宋体].[/font] Dr[font=宋体].[/font] Kell filled an open pail with cold water[font=宋体].[/font] He filled another with warm water[font=宋体].[/font] He exposed both to the same low temperature[font=宋体].[/font] The warm water froze first[font=宋体].[/font]
    Topic Sentence[font=宋体]:[/font]____________________________________________
    Details[font=宋体]:[/font]1[font=宋体].[/font]________________________________________________
    2[font=宋体].[/font]________________________________________________
    [align=center][b][/b] [/align][align=center][b][font=宋体]([/font]2[/b][b][font=宋体])[/font][/b][/align][align=center][b][/b] [/align]There is a relationship between your blood type and your nationality[font=宋体].[/font] Among Europeans and people of European ancestry[font=宋体],[/font]about 42 percent have type A while 45 percent have type O[font=宋体].[/font]The rarest is type B[font=宋体].[/font] Other races have different percentages[font=宋体].[/font]For example[font=宋体],[/font] some American Indian groups have nearly 100 percent type O[font=宋体].[/font]
    Topic Sentence[font=宋体]:[/font]____________________________________________
    Details[font=宋体]:[/font]1[font=宋体].[/font]________________________________________________
    2[font=宋体].[/font]________________________________________________
    [align=center][b][/b] [/align][align=center][b][font=宋体]([/font]3[/b][b][font=宋体])[/font][/b][/align][align=center][b][/b] [/align]Although thousands of people have been killed by sudden eruptions[font=宋体],[/font] volcanoes also benefit man[font=宋体],[/font] Tin[font=宋体],[/font] tungsten[font=宋体],[/font] gold and other metals have been brought closer to the earth[font=宋体]’[/font]s surface[font=宋体].[/font]Chemicals in the ash have enriched farmland[font=宋体].[/font] When solid[font=宋体],[/font] lava is agood building material[font=宋体].[/font] And in Italy[font=宋体],[/font] steam from active volcanoes supplies heat and power to surrounding areas[font=宋体].[/font]
    Topic Sentence[font=宋体]:[/font]____________________________________________
    Details[font=宋体]:[/font]1[font=宋体].[/font]_______________________________________________
    2[font=宋体].[/font]_______________________________________________
    3[font=宋体].[/font]_______________________________________________
    4[font=宋体].[/font]_______________________________________________
    [align=center][b][/b] [/align][align=center][b][font=宋体]([/font]4[/b][b][font=宋体])[/font][/b][/align][align=center][b][/b] [/align]The Women[font=宋体]’[/font]s Movement has had several effects on the English language[font=宋体].[/font] It has created Ms[font=宋体],[/font] a title for women comparable to the title Mr[font=宋体].[/font] for men[font=宋体].[/font] The creator of the new title objected to the title Miss and Mrs[font=宋体].[/font] once given to women because these titles violated a woman's privacy by indicating her marital status[font=宋体].[/font] The use of Ms[font=宋体].[/font]now permits women to enjoy the same privacy that men have enjoyed with the use of Mr[font=宋体].[/font] Second[font=宋体],[/font] the Movement has changed the ending of many compound words from-man to-person[font=宋体].[/font]For instance[font=宋体],[/font] the word [font=宋体]“[/font]chairman[font=宋体]”[/font] has been replaced in many organization with the word [font=宋体]“[/font]chairperson[font=宋体]”,[/font] and the word[font=宋体]“[/font]salesman[font=宋体]”[/font]has become salesperson[font=宋体].[/font] Feminists insist that the substitution of-person for-man makes the position more suitable for members of either sex[font=宋体].[/font] Third[font=宋体],[/font] the Movement is responsible for new terms[font=宋体].[/font]One example is male chauvinist pig[font=宋体],[/font] a term applied to a man who refuses to recognize the equality of women[font=宋体].[/font] Another example is female chauvinist sow[font=宋体],[/font] a phrase used to describe a female who believes that she is superior to males[font=宋体].[/font] The most profound effect the Movementhas had on the language is on the third person singular pronoun[font=宋体].[/font]Thirty years ago most English instructors forced their students to se he[font=宋体],[/font] him[font=宋体],[/font] and his for the third person singular when the sex of the person was not known[font=宋体].[/font] Thus[font=宋体],[/font] students were taught to say[font=宋体],“[/font]Everyone has his books[font=宋体]”.[/font]Today many English teachers permit students to follow the feminist lead and use the masculine and feminine pronouns together[font=宋体].[/font] Therefore[font=宋体],[/font] constructions such as his or her books are common[font=宋体].[/font] Although the Women's Movement may not have yet achieved all of its goals[font=宋体],[/font] it has made a mark on the English language[font=宋体].[/font]
    Topic Sentence[font=宋体]:[/font]___________________________________________
    Details[font=宋体]:[/font]1[font=宋体].[/font]______________________________________________
    2[font=宋体].[/font]______________________________________________
    3[font=宋体].[/font]______________________________________________
    4[font=宋体].[/font]______________________________________________

    [b][size=10]
    [/size][/b]