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    实用英语写作技巧



    作者:abscottlee 阅读次数:1703


     
     
    [align=center][color=sienna][size=3][b][font=宋体]第七单元[/font] [/b][b][font=宋体]如何写好一个段落(Ⅱ)[/font][/b][/size][/color][/align][align=center][b][size=3][color=sienna] [/color][/size][/b][/align][color=sienna][size=3][b]7[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]1[/b][b][font=宋体]连贯性[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]段落的连贯性指的是段落的句子以清晰、符合逻辑的顺序([/font]clear[font=宋体],[/font] logical sequence[font=宋体])连接。连贯性使读者能够找出每个观点之间的联系以及这些观点与主题句的联系。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][b]7[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]2[/b][b][font=宋体]关于如何取得连贯性的建议[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]1[font=宋体])使用同一时态[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]如果随意而毫无理由地改变时态([/font]tenses[font=宋体]),那么不管作者连句的技巧多么高超,段落也不可能取得连贯性。在写作时,可以使用现在时([/font] present tense[font=宋体])或过去时([/font]past tense[font=宋体])。选用哪一种取决于作者处理材料的方式。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]2[font=宋体])使用某种逻辑顺序[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]常用的逻辑顺序有:[/font] 1[font=宋体])时间顺序([/font]time order[font=宋体]);[/font] 2[font=宋体])空间顺序([/font]space order[font=宋体])(见第[/font]12[font=宋体]单元);[/font] 3[font=宋体])重要性顺序([/font]order of importance[font=宋体])和[/font] 4[font=宋体])熟悉度顺序([/font]order of familiarity[font=宋体])(见第[/font] 19[font=宋体]单元)。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]3[font=宋体])使用连接成分[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]使用某些连接词和短语([/font]connective word Sand phrases[font=宋体]),重复某些关键词([/font]repetition of certain key words[font=宋体]),可以大大增加段落的连贯性。某些连接词、短语和关键词可以起粘着物([/font]adhesives[font=宋体])的作用,把各部分连接起来,使句子间的关系更加清楚。连接成分主要有以下三种:[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]a[font=宋体].连接词语([/font]linking expressions[font=宋体])(见第[/font]34[font=宋体]单元)[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]b[font=宋体].代词([/font]pronouns[font=宋体])[/font][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=sienna][font=宋体]代词用于提醒读者注意其先行词,以此把有关的部分连接起来。[/font][/color][/size]
    [color=sienna][size=3]c[font=宋体].重复关键词语([/font]repetition of key words[font=宋体])[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]示范段落[/font]7[font=宋体].[/font]1[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]①[/font] Until recently daydreaming was viewed as a waste of time[font=宋体].②[/font] Or it was considered an unhealthy escape from real life and its duties[font=宋体].③[/font] But now some people are taking a fresh look at daydreaming[font=宋体].④[/font] And it may be that more people are suffering from a lack of daydreaming than are suffering from too much of it[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][b]7[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]3[/b][b][font=宋体]示范段落分析[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=sienna][font=宋体]顺序:熟悉度和对比关系[/font][/color][/size]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]连接词语:①“[/font]until recently[font=宋体]”②“[/font]or[font=宋体]”③“[/font]but[font=宋体]”④“[/font]and[font=宋体]”⑤“[/font]then[font=宋体]”[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]代词:①[/font] daydreaming[font=宋体]—②[/font]it[font=宋体]—④[/font] it[font=宋体]([/font]the second one[font=宋体])[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]重复关键词:①[/font]daydreaming[font=宋体]—③[/font]daydreaming[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]④[/font]daydreaming[/size][/color]
    [b][size=3][color=sienna]Exercise 7-1[/color][/size][/b]
    [color=sienna][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font] Arrange the following sentences into a paragraph[font=宋体],[/font]using the coherence devices as the hints[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]①[/font] Clearly[font=宋体],[/font] in agriculture and industry[font=宋体],[/font] the progress of a country depends on the busy hands of its working people[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]②[/font] Finally[font=宋体],[/font] the establishment of efficient transportation and communication systems[font=宋体],[/font] essential services in a modernizing economy[font=宋体],[/font] relies heavily on a lab our force of expert craftsmen who take pride in their manual skills[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]③[/font] And of course the manufactures as well as the maintenance of machines of all kinds demands a large number of trained mechanics and technicians[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]④[/font] To begin with[font=宋体],[/font] ploughing fields[font=宋体],[/font]planting and harvesting crops[font=宋体],[/font] and raising livestock are all important to development and all require people who work with their hands[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]⑤[/font] Secondly[font=宋体],[/font] mining natural resources[font=宋体],[/font] building roads and bridges[font=宋体],[/font] and constructing dams for irrigation and electrical power are also important to development and also require people who know how to use their hands skillfully[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]⑥[/font] Manual lab our is one of the principal development resources in any industralizing country[font=宋体],[/font] as the following examples demonstrate[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]Topic Sentence[font=宋体]:[/font]____________[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]Details[font=宋体]:[/font]___________________[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]Concluding Sentence[font=宋体]:[/font]____________[/size][/color]
    [b][size=3][color=sienna]Exercise 7-2[/color][/size][/b]
    [color=sienna][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font] In the following paragraph[font=宋体],[/font] find all the words that help the reader move smoothly from one detail to another[font=宋体].[/font]write these words in the blanks to the right[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]To prepare a nutritious breakfast of cereal and milk you need tofollow only a few simple directions[font=宋体].[/font] First[font=宋体],[/font] acquire the necessary ingredients and materials[font=宋体]:[/font] dry cereal of your choice[font=宋体],[/font] milk[font=宋体],[/font] sugar[font=宋体],[/font]fruit[font=宋体],[/font] a cereal bowl and a soup spoon[font=宋体].[/font] Second[font=宋体],[/font] pour the cereal into the bowl until the bowl is half full[font=宋体].[/font] Next [font=宋体],[/font]cut up the fruit and arrange it on top of the cereal[font=宋体];[/font] then sprinkle sugar over the fruit[font=宋体],[/font]if desired[font=宋体].[/font] Once you have layered the cereal and fruit in the bowl[font=宋体],[/font]you are ready for the milk[font=宋体].[/font] Now[font=宋体],[/font] pour enough milk into the bowl to just barely cover the cereal and fruit[font=宋体].[/font] At last[font=宋体],[/font] your breakfast is ready[font=宋体];[/font]pick up your spoon and dig in[font=宋体]![/font][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=sienna]______________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]______________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]______________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]______________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]______________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna][/color][/size]
    [b][size=10]
    [/size][/b][size=3][color=sienna][/color][/size]