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    实用英语写作技巧之第十二单元 组织段落方法——时间顺序法和空间顺序法



    作者:abscottlee 阅读次数:8225


     
     
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][font=宋体]组织段落的常见方法有:[/font]1[font=宋体])时间顺序;[/font]2[font=宋体])空间顺序;[/font]3[font=宋体])重要性顺序和;[/font]4[font=宋体])熟悉度顺序。在前几单元,我们曾提到写叙述段落和过程分析时用时间顺序,写描述段落时用空间顺序。在这一单元里,我们将着重讨论这两种组织方法。另两种方法——重要性和熟悉度顺序——将在第[/font]19[font=宋体]单元讨论。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][b]12[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]1[/b][b][font=宋体]时间顺序法[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][font=宋体]段落内组织细节的最简单最常见的方法是时间顺序法([/font]time order organization[font=宋体])。时间顺序通常用于叙述和过程分析——先发生什么,然后怎样,再然后怎样,等等。正如我们在示范段落[/font]9[font=宋体]-[/font]1[font=宋体]和示范段落[/font]11[font=宋体]-[/font]1[font=宋体]所看到的一样。其实在你的生活中你经常运用这种方法。你也许曾经告诉你父母在学校里发生的事情。你也许向老师或同学叙述过你是怎样做一个实验的。这些用的都是时间顺序。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][b]12[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]2[/b][b][font=宋体]关于如何写时间顺序段落的建议[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3]1[font=宋体])写下你要记录的事件或步骤,然后按照时间顺序排列[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3]2[font=宋体])确定你的写作目的,然后写出带有中心思想的主题句[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3]3[font=宋体])从你列举的事件或步骤中删除与中心思想无关的细节[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3]4[font=宋体])使用“[/font]first[font=宋体],[/font]then[font=宋体],[/font]the next step[font=宋体]”等等列举符号把细节连接起来[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][b]12[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]3[/b][b][font=宋体]空间顺序法[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][font=宋体]段落组织的另一方法是空间顺序法([/font]space order organization[font=宋体])。空间顺序主要用于描述,正如我们在示范段落[/font]10[font=宋体]-[/font]1[font=宋体]和示范段落[/font]10[font=宋体]-[/font]2[font=宋体]所看到的。空间顺序和时间顺序一样,是生活中经常使用的方法。你也许曾在信中向你父母描述你的学院,或向你的同学描述一个风景区。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][b]12[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]4[/b][b][font=宋体]关于如何写空间顺序段落的建议[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=darkolivegreen][font=宋体]按照你想让你的读者了解你要描绘的场面的方式移动——例如,从左到右,或从背景到前景,或按顺时针方向,等等。[/font][/color][/size]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][b]12[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]5[/b][b][font=宋体]综合运用空间顺序和时间顺序[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=darkolivegreen][font=宋体]有时候,尤其在描写参观时,有必要同时运用空间顺序和时间顺序,以增强段落的统一性。[/font][/color][/size]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][font=宋体]示范段落[/font]12-1[/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3]We enjoyed our visit to Dr Hassan's house[font=宋体],[/font]perched high up on a hill[font=宋体].[/font]Walking up the long driveway[font=宋体],[/font]we approached the huge bronze door[font=宋体].[/font]A butler was standing in the open doorway[font=宋体],[/font]ushering guests into the house[font=宋体].[/font]Going in[font=宋体],[/font]we passed the oak[font=宋体]-[/font]pannelled library and the formal dining room before we arrived at the ballroom[font=宋体],[/font]where the reception was being held[font=宋体].[/font]Under three sparkling chandeliers[font=宋体],[/font]more than a hundred people were enjoying champagne[font=宋体],[/font]hors d'oeuvres and good conversation[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][b]12[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]6[/b][b][font=宋体]示范段落分析[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][font=宋体]主题句:[/font]We enjoyed our visit to Dr Hassan's house[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][font=宋体]时间空间顺序:[/font]driveway[font=宋体]→[/font]door[font=宋体]→[/font]house[font=宋体]→[/font]library[font=宋体]→[/font]diningroom[font=宋体]→[/font]ballroom[/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][b]Exercise 12[/b][b][font=宋体]-[/font]1[/b][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Arrange the sentences into a paragraph[font=宋体],[/font]using the time order and adding the necessary listing signals[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][font=宋体]—[/font]She never had a birthday party and she was twenty[font=宋体]-[/font]one year sold[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][font=宋体]—[/font]The party was really a successful one[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][font=宋体]—[/font]We planned to serve fruit punch and coffee[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][font=宋体]—[/font]We planned entertainment[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][font=宋体]—[/font]We carefully made a guest list[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][font=宋体]—[/font]We planned a surprise party for Mary recently[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][font=宋体]—[/font]We included many of her friends from school[font=宋体],[/font]a few of her friends from her neighbourhood[font=宋体],[/font]and all of her brothers and sisters[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][font=宋体]—[/font]A boy did mayic tricks skillfully[font=宋体];[/font]another boy played the guitar well[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][font=宋体]—[/font]We also wanted chicken sandwiches[font=宋体],[/font]a birthday cake with twenty[font=宋体]-[/font]one candles[font=宋体],[/font]and ice cream[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][font=宋体]—[/font]We especially enjoyed the group singing[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=darkolivegreen]________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=darkolivegreen][/color][/size]
    [b][size=3][color=darkolivegreen]Exercise 12-2 [/color][/size][/b]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Narrate an incident from your own childhood in which you behave in a way you later regretted[font=宋体],[/font]using time order[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=darkolivegreen]________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3][b]Exercise 12[/b][b][font=宋体]-[/font]3[/b][/size][/color]
    [color=darkolivegreen][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Narrate one of your trip[font=宋体],[/font]either by bike[font=宋体],[/font]by bus or bytrain[font=宋体],[/font]combining time order and space order[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=darkolivegreen]________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=darkolivegreen][/color][/size]
    [b][size=10.5pt]
    [/size][/b][size=3][color=darkolivegreen][/color][/size]