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    实用英语写作技巧之第十五单元 推展段落方法之七——下定义法



    作者:abscottlee 阅读次数:4278


     
     
    [color=mediumturquoise][size=3][b]15[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]1[/b][b][font=宋体]下定义法[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=mediumturquoise][size=3][font=宋体]下定义([/font]definition[font=宋体])就是解释某事物是什么,不是什么。写下定义段落时,通常把概念或要下定义的事物置于一个大的类别中,然后解释该事物与同一类别的其它事物有何不同。下定义法多用作推展段落的辅助方法。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=mediumturquoise][size=3][font=宋体]示范段落[/font]15[font=宋体]-[/font]1[/size][/color]
    [color=mediumturquoise][size=3]A pencil is an instrument for writing on paper[font=宋体].[/font]It is of cylindrical shape and can be held between the first two fingers of the hand[font=宋体].[/font]It is about 6 inches long and 1[font=宋体]/[/font]4 inch wide[font=宋体].[/font]At the end there is usually an eraser attached to the pencil by a surrounding metal band[font=宋体].[/font]Lead is the material which is used in making the marks on the paper[font=宋体],[/font]and a sharpener is needed to keep the pencil in good working order[font=宋体].[/font]Pencils are made of various kinds of wood[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=mediumturquoise][size=3][b]15[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]2[/b][b][font=宋体]示范段落分析[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=mediumturquoise][size=3][font=宋体]主题句:[/font]A pencil is an instrument for writing on paper[font=宋体].细节:[/font]shape[font=宋体],[/font]material[/size][/color]
    [color=mediumturquoise][size=3][b]15[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]3[/b][b][font=宋体]关于如何写下定义段落[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=mediumturquoise][size=3]1[font=宋体])以正式的定义开始[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=mediumturquoise][size=3][font=宋体]一个正式的定义段落通常把要定义的术语置于一个概类中,然后指出该术语与其它同类别事物有什么不同。在示范段落[/font]15[font=宋体]-[/font]1[font=宋体]中,要定义的术语是“[/font]pencil[font=宋体]”,属于概类“[/font]instrument[font=宋体]”。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=mediumturquoise][size=3]2[font=宋体])用描述、举例或比较对比方法扩充定义[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=mediumturquoise][size=3][font=宋体]在正式的定义之后,必须更详细地解释该术语的意思,在示范段落[/font]15[font=宋体]-[/font]1[font=宋体]中用的是描述法,在示范段落[/font]13[font=宋体]-[/font]1[font=宋体]中,扩充“[/font]courage[font=宋体]”概念用的是举例法。比较对比法也可以用于扩充定义,对比法陈述该事物不是什么,比较法陈述该事物象什么。[/font][/size][/color]
    [b][size=3][color=mediumturquoise]Exercise 15-1[/color][/size][/b]
    [color=mediumturquoise][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Read the following paragraph[font=宋体],[/font]point out the topic sentence and find out what method[font=宋体]([/font]s[font=宋体])[/font]are used to expand the defintion[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=mediumturquoise][size=3]Chemistry is that branch of science which has the task of investigating the materials out of which the universe is made[font=宋体].[/font]It is not concerned with the forms into which they may be fashioned[font=宋体].[/font]Such objects as chairs[font=宋体],[/font]tables[font=宋体],[/font]vases[font=宋体],[/font]bottles[font=宋体],[/font]or wires are of no significance in chemistry[font=宋体];[/font]but such substances as glass[font=宋体],[/font]wool[font=宋体],[/font]iron[font=宋体],[/font]sulfur[font=宋体],[/font]and clay[font=宋体],[/font]as the materials out of which they are made[font=宋体],[/font]are what it studies[font=宋体].[/font]Chemistry is concerned not only with the composition of such substances[font=宋体],[/font]but also with their inner structure[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=mediumturquoise][size=3]Topic Sentence[font=宋体]:[/font]____________________________________________[/size][/color]
    [color=mediumturquoise][size=3]Method[font=宋体]([/font]s[font=宋体])[/font] used[font=宋体]:[/font]_______________________________________[/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=mediumturquoise][/color][/size]
    [color=mediumturquoise][size=3][b]Exercise 15[/b][b][font=宋体]-[/font]2[/b][/size][/color]
    [color=mediumturquoise][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]The definition of[font=宋体]“[/font]an ice[font=宋体]-[/font]box[font=宋体]”[/font]can be[font=宋体],“[/font]An ice[font=宋体]-[/font]box is an appliance for storing food at low temperature[font=宋体].”[/font]Now use the method of description to expand the definition[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=mediumturquoise][size=3]An ice[font=宋体]-[/font]box is an appliance for storing food at low temperature[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=mediumturquoise]________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [b][size=3][color=mediumturquoise]Exercise 15-3[/color][/size][/b]
    [color=mediumturquoise][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Give the defintion of friendship and then use an example to expand your definition[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=mediumturquoise]________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=mediumturquoise][/color][/size]
    [b][size=10.5pt]
    [/size][/b][size=3][color=mediumturquoise][/color][/size]