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    实用英语写作技巧之第十六单元 推展段落方法之八——分类法



    作者:abscottlee 阅读次数:4065


     
     
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3][b]16[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]1[/b][b][font=宋体]分类法[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3][font=宋体]分类法([/font]division and classification[font=宋体])是把一事物拆成几部分,表明这些部分与整体的关系。通常,作者以总类开头,然后把总类拆开,——列举部分或全部分类。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3][font=宋体]示范段落[/font]16[font=宋体]-[/font]1[/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3]There are three basic kinds of materials that can be found in any good library[font=宋体].[/font]First[font=宋体],[/font]there are books on all subjects[font=宋体],[/font]both in English and in many other languages[font=宋体].[/font]These books are organized according to subject[font=宋体],[/font]title[font=宋体],[/font]and author in a central filing system called card catalog[font=宋体].[/font]Books can generally be checked out of the library and taken home for a period of two to four weeks[font=宋体].[/font]Second[font=宋体],[/font]there are reference materials[font=宋体],[/font]which include encyclopedias[font=宋体],[/font]dictionaries[font=宋体],[/font]bibliographies[font=宋体],[/font]atlases[font=宋体],[/font]etc[font=宋体].[/font]and which generally must be used in the library itself[font=宋体].[/font]Third[font=宋体],[/font]there are periodicals[font=宋体]—[/font]magazines[font=宋体],[/font]news[font=宋体]-[/font]papers[font=宋体],[/font]pamphlets[font=宋体]—[/font]which are filed alphbetically in racks or which have been micro[font=宋体]-[/font]filmed to conserve space[font=宋体].[/font]Like reference works[font=宋体],[/font]periodicals cannot usually be removed from the library[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3][b]16[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]2[/b][b][font=宋体]示范段落分析[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3][font=宋体]主题句:[/font]There are three basic kinds of materials that can be foundin any good library[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3][font=宋体]分类词([/font]Classifier[font=宋体]):[/font]kinds[/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3][font=宋体]列举词([/font]Listing Signals[font=宋体]):[/font]first[font=宋体],[/font]second[font=宋体],[/font]third[/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3][font=宋体]分类([/font]Categories[font=宋体]):[/font]1[font=宋体].[/font]books on all subjects[/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3]2[font=宋体].[/font]reference materials[/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3]3[font=宋体].[/font]periodicals[/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3][b]16[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]2[/b][b][font=宋体]关于如何写分类段落的建议[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3]1[font=宋体])依据一个原则分类[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3][font=宋体]把一事物分类后,要自始至终遵循同一分类原则。在示范段落[/font]16[font=宋体]-[/font]1[font=宋体],分类原则是“[/font]the kinds of materials[font=宋体]”。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3]2[font=宋体])所分类别必须互不包容[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3][font=宋体]在示范段落[/font]16[font=宋体]-[/font]1[font=宋体]中,属于第一类的“[/font]books on all subjects[font=宋体]”与属于第二类的“[/font]reference materials[font=宋体]”界线分明.反之亦然。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3]3[font=宋体])分类必须完整[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3][font=宋体]如果所分类别不完整,所作的分类则徒劳无益。如上例,所分三种“[/font]materials[font=宋体]”应包括“[/font]all materials in a library[font=宋体]”。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3]4[font=宋体])运用熟悉度方法排列[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3][font=宋体]作者经常根据该读者对所分类别的熟悉程度排列顺序。通常先讨论读者最熟悉的,然后逐步讨论不熟悉的(关于熟悉度法见第[/font]19[font=宋体]单元)。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3]5[font=宋体])使用分类词和列举符号[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3][font=宋体]有经验的作者经常使用类词介绍概类,然后使用列举符号表明概类中的各分类。在示范段落[/font]16[font=宋体]-[/font]1[font=宋体]中,类词是“[/font]kind[font=宋体]”,列举符号是“[/font]first[font=宋体],[/font]second[font=宋体],[/font]third[font=宋体]”,下面是经常使用的类词:[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3]kind[font=宋体],[/font]type[font=宋体],[/font]group[font=宋体],[/font]thought[font=宋体],[/font]way[font=宋体],[/font]class[font=宋体],[/font]part[font=宋体],[/font]element[font=宋体],[/font]factor[font=宋体],[/font]aspect[font=宋体],[/font]division[font=宋体],[/font]characteristic[font=宋体],[/font]subdivision[font=宋体],[/font]reasons[font=宋体],[/font]category[font=宋体],等等。[/font][/size][/color]
    [b][size=3][color=yellowgreen]Exercise 16-1[/color][/size][/b]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Read the following paragraph[font=宋体],[/font]find out the topic sentence[font=宋体],[/font]the classifier[font=宋体],[/font]and the categories[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3]There are three fundamental human body types[font=宋体]—[/font]endomorphic[font=宋体],[/font]mesomorphic[font=宋体],[/font]and ectomorphic[font=宋体].[/font]The extreme endomorph combines heavy fat distribution and lack of bony angularity with around face[font=宋体],[/font]short neck[font=宋体],[/font]wide hips[font=宋体],[/font]and heavy limbs[font=宋体].[/font]The extreme mesomorph has a solid chest[font=宋体],[/font]slender waist[font=宋体],[/font]long torso[font=宋体],[/font]and relatively short[font=宋体],[/font]powerful arms and legs[font=宋体].[/font]Extreme ectomorphs are characterized by their slender bodies[font=宋体],[/font]short trunks[font=宋体],[/font]long arms and legs[font=宋体],[/font]long narrow hands and feet[font=宋体],[/font]and lack of fat[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3]Topic Sentence[font=宋体]:[/font]____________________________________________[/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3]Classifier[font=宋体]:[/font]_____________[/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3]Categories[font=宋体]:[/font]________________________________________________[/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3][b]Exercise 16[/b][b][font=宋体]-[/font]2[/b][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Divide the books college students often read into three kinds and describe them one by one[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=yellowgreen]________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=yellowgreen][/color][/size]
    [b][size=3][color=yellowgreen]Exercise 16-3[/color][/size][/b]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Write a paragraph of division and catagory with the given topic sentence and details[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3]Topic sentence[font=宋体]:[/font]A language is made up of many elements[/size][/color]
    [color=yellowgreen][size=3]Details[font=宋体]:[/font]1[font=宋体].[/font]sounds 2[font=宋体].[/font]words 3[font=宋体].[/font]sentences[/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=yellowgreen]________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=yellowgreen][/color][/size]
    [b][size=10.5pt]
    [/size][/b][size=3][color=yellowgreen][/color][/size]