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    实用英语写作技巧之第十七单元 推展段落方法之九——因果法(Ⅰ)



    作者:abscottlee 阅读次数:9227


     
     
    [color=darkred][size=3][b]17[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]1[/b][b][font=宋体]因果法[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3][font=宋体]因果法([/font]cause and effect[font=宋体])段落通常回答“[/font]why[font=宋体]?”的问题。大多数人认为在自己或别人生活中发生的事情必然事出有因,因此总要知道为什么会发生这样或那样的事情。原因([/font]cause[font=宋体])指的是导致结果的发生在过去的事情,结果([/font]effect[font=宋体])指的是已发生的事情将会产生的后果。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3][b]17[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]2[/b][b][font=宋体]结果法[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3][font=宋体]解释一个原因([/font]cause[font=宋体])的几个结果([/font]effects[font=宋体])的段落,可能以下面两种顺序之一出现:或者以原因开头,接着指出一个一个结果,如下面示范段落[/font]17[font=宋体]-[/font]1[font=宋体]所示;或首先摆出结果,然后指出原因。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3][font=宋体]示范段落[/font]17[font=宋体]-[/font]1[/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3]Many people are worried about what television has done to the generation of American children who have grown up watching it[font=宋体].[/font]For one thing[font=宋体],[/font]recent studies tend to show that TV stifles creative imagination[font=宋体].[/font]Some teachers feel that television has taken away the child's ability to form mental pictures in his own mind[font=宋体],[/font]resulting in children who cannot understand a simple story without visualillustrations[font=宋体].[/font]Secondly[font=宋体],[/font]too much TV too early tends to cause children to withdraw from real life experiences[font=宋体].[/font]Thus[font=宋体],[/font]they grow up to be passive spectators who can only respond to action[font=宋体],[/font]but not initiate it[font=宋体].[/font]The third area for concern is the serious complaint frequently made by elementary school teachers that children exhibit a low tolerance for the frustrations of learning[font=宋体].[/font]Because they have been conditioned to see all problems resolved in 30 or 60 minutes on TV[font=宋体],[/font]they are quickly discouraged by any activity that promises less than instant gratification[font=宋体].[/font]But perhaps the most serious result is the impact of television violence on children[font=宋体],[/font]who have come to regard it as an everyday thing[font=宋体].[/font]Not only does this increase their tolerance of violent behavior in others[font=宋体],[/font]but most authorities now concede that under certain conditions[font=宋体],[/font]some children will imitate anti[font=宋体]-[/font] social acts that they witness on television[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3][b]17[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]3[/b][b][font=宋体]示范段落分析[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3][font=宋体]主题句:[/font]Many people are worried about what television has done to the generation of American children who have grown up watching it[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3][font=宋体]因果模式([/font]cause and effect pattern[font=宋体]):[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3][font=宋体]原因([/font]cause[font=宋体]):[/font]television[/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3][font=宋体]结果([/font]effects[font=宋体]):[/font]1[font=宋体].[/font]TV stifles creative imagination[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3]2[font=宋体].[/font]TV causes children to withdraw from real life experiences[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3]3[font=宋体].[/font]Children exhibit a low tolerance for the frustrations of learning[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3]4[font=宋体].[/font]Children have come to regard violence as an everyday thing[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3][b]17[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]4[/b][b][font=宋体]关于如何写因果法段落的建议[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3]1[font=宋体])段落一开始就表明目的[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3][font=宋体]在段落一开始就陈述你所关心的原因或结果是什么。例如,在示范段落[/font]17[font=宋体]-[/font]1[font=宋体],主题句就把目的限定为分析“[/font]the effects of television on American children[font=宋体]”。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3]2[font=宋体])选择主题要适中[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3][font=宋体]选择太大的主题会给你带来麻烦。因此,记住要选择你可以驾驭的主题。例如:“[/font]effects of television[font=宋体]”作为主题会太大,难以下笔。然而把它限制为“[/font]effects on American children[font=宋体]”就容易多了(第[/font]18[font=宋体]单元继续讨论因果法)。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3][b]Exercise17[/b][b][font=宋体]-[/font]1[/b][/size][/color]
    [color=darkred][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Write a paragraph[font=宋体],[/font]analyzing the effects of students cheating on exams[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=darkred]________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=darkred][/color][/size]
    [b][size=3][color=darkred]Exercise 17-2[/color][/size][/b]
    [color=darkred][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Write a paragraph[font=宋体],[/font]analyzing the advantages of job interview[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=darkred]________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=darkred][/color][/size]
    [b][size=10.5pt]
    [/size][/b][size=3][color=darkred][/color][/size]