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    实用英语写作技巧之第十八单元 推展段落方法之九——因果法(Ⅱ)



    作者:abscottlee 阅读次数:3456


     
     
    [color=navy][size=3][b]18[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]1[/b][b][font=宋体]原因法[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=navy][font=宋体]有时,一个结果会源于几个原因。同样,段落可或以结果开头或以结果结束,作者可以从熟悉到不熟悉的原因逐一分析,或是从分析一个又一个读者不熟悉的原因开头,最后引出读者熟悉的结果。选用哪一种,决定于作者认为哪一种更有说服力。[/font][/color][/size]
    [color=navy][size=3][font=宋体]示范段落[/font]18-1[/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3]Several changes have brought wild animals to the cities[font=宋体].[/font]Foremost is[font=宋体],[/font]that air and water quality in many cities have improved as a result of the 1970's pollution control efforts[font=宋体].[/font]Meanwhile[font=宋体],[/font]rural areas have been built up[font=宋体],[/font]leaving many animals on the edges of suburbs[font=宋体].[/font]In addition[font=宋体],[/font]urban wildlife refuges have been created[font=宋体].[/font]The Greater London Council last year spent [font=宋体]$[/font]750,000 to buy land and build 10 permanent wildlife refuges in the city[font=宋体].[/font]As a result[font=宋体],[/font]many big birds are now living in the city[font=宋体].[/font]For peregrine falcons cities are actully safer than rural cliff dwellings[font=宋体].[/font]By 1970 the birds had died out east of the Mississippi because DDT had made their eggs too thin to support life[font=宋体].[/font]That year[font=宋体],[/font]scientist Tom Cade of Cornell University began raising the birds for release in cities[font=宋体],[/font]for cities afforded plentyof food[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3][b]18[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]2 [/b][b][font=宋体]示范段落分析[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3][font=宋体]主题句:[/font]Several changes have brought wild animals to the cities[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3][font=宋体]因果模式([/font]Cause-effect Pattern[font=宋体]):[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3][font=宋体]结果([/font]Effect[font=宋体]):[/font]wild animals back to the cities[/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3][font=宋体]原因([/font]Causes[font=宋体]):[/font] 1[font=宋体].[/font]Air and water quality have improved[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3]2[font=宋体].[/font]Rural areas have been built up[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3]3[font=宋体].[/font]Urban wildlife refuges have been created[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3][b]18[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]3 [/b][b][font=宋体]因—果—因法[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3][font=宋体]有时候,一个原因也许会引起一个结果,这个结果又成为另一个结果的原因,如示范段落[/font]18-2[font=宋体]所示。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3][font=宋体]示范段落[/font]18-2[/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3]For some time now[font=宋体],[/font]medical scientists have noted an alarming increase in disease of the heart and circulation among people who smoke cigarettes[font=宋体].[/font]It has been found that the presence of nicotine in the blood stream causes blood vessels to contract[font=宋体],[/font]thus slowing circulation[font=宋体],[/font]which eventully leads to hardening of the arteries[font=宋体].[/font]As the arteries stiffen[font=宋体],[/font]less blood reaches the brain[font=宋体],[/font]and the end result of this slowdown is the cerebral hemorrhage[font=宋体],[/font]commonly referred to as a[font=宋体]“[/font]stroke[font=宋体]”.[/font]In addition[font=宋体],[/font]nicotine in the bloodstream reduces the ability of the hemoglobin to release oxygen[font=宋体],[/font]resulting in shortness of breath[font=宋体].[/font]The lack of oxygen forces the heart to beat faster[font=宋体]—[/font]that is[font=宋体],[/font]the pulse rate increases[font=宋体]—[/font]and in turn accelerates the risk of heart attack[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3][b]18[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]4[/b][b][font=宋体].示范段落分析[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3][font=宋体]因[/font]-[font=宋体]果[/font]-[font=宋体]因模式([/font]Cause-Effect-Cause Pattern[font=宋体]):[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3]Smoking tobacco[font=宋体]→[/font]nicotine in the blood streams[/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3][font=宋体]→[/font]the blood vessels constract[font=宋体]…[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3][b]18[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]5 [/b][b][font=宋体]关于写因果段落的建议(续)[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3]3[font=宋体])着重分析直接的、明显的原因[/font][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=navy][font=宋体]每个结果都有无数的原因,同样,每个行为都会导致无数的结果。因果段落应只着重分析直接的、明显的原因,忽略间接的原因。例如,一个学生成绩不好,直接原因是没有认真学习,间接原因也许是对学校不满。显然,我们应该着眼于直接的原因而摒弃间接的原因。[/font][/color][/size]
    [color=navy][size=3]4[font=宋体])根据重要性或熟悉程度排列细节(见第[/font]19[font=宋体]单元)[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3]5[font=宋体])使用适当的排列符号([/font]listing signals[font=宋体])(见第[/font]34[font=宋体]单元)[/font][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=navy]Exercise 18-1[/color][/size]
    [color=navy][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Read the following paragraph of cause and effect[font=宋体],[/font]adding suitable listing signals and linking expressions[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3]There are many reasons why languages change[font=宋体].[/font]____[font=宋体],[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=navy][size=3]various languages that started from the same parent developed their own uniqueness after groups of speakers drifted away from one another to establish isolated[font=宋体],[/font]independent communities[font=宋体].[/font]________is the independence of and interaction with foreign cultures[font=宋体],[/font]often as a result of military conquest[font=宋体].[/font]________is rapidly expanding technologe and new systems of communication that bring all cultures and languages into close contact[font=宋体],[/font]with borrowing between languages a common phenomenon in the contemporary world[font=宋体].[/font]All languages change as the experiences of their speakers change[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [b][size=3][color=navy]Exercise 18-2[/color][/size][/b]
    [color=navy][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Write a paragraph analyzing the causes of students cheating on exams[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=navy]________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=navy][/color][/size]
    [b][size=10.5pt]
    [/size][/b][size=3][color=navy][/color][/size]