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    实用英语写作技巧之第十九单元 组织段落方法——重要性和熟悉度顺序



    作者:abscottlee 阅读次数:9182


     
     
    [color=indigo][size=3][b]19[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]1 [/b][b][font=宋体]重要性顺序排列法[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=indigo][size=3][font=宋体]前面我们已经讨论了组织段落的两种方法——时间顺序法([/font]time-order[font=宋体])和空间顺序法([/font]space-order[font=宋体])。组织段落的第三种方法是根据重要性排列的方法([/font]to organize details according to their order of importance[font=宋体])。作者使用这种方法的依据是他认为所选用的细节应如何加以强调。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=indigo][size=3][font=宋体]使用重要性顺序法,可选用上升顺序([/font]ascending order[font=宋体]),或下降顺序([/font]aescending oraer[font=宋体])。前者先列举次要观点,把重要的留到最末(如示范段落[/font]17-1[font=宋体]),后者先强调最重要的观点,然后列举次要观点(如示范段落[/font]4-1[font=宋体])。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=indigo][size=3][b]19[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]2 [/b][b][font=宋体]熟悉度顺序排列法[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=indigo][size=3][font=宋体]对于某些段落,也许使用熟悉度顺序法([/font]order of familiarity[font=宋体])更恰当。这种方法根据读者对作者所选用的一系列细节的熟悉程度排列。例如,在分类段落中,作者经常先谈论读者比较熟悉的、具体的细节,然后谈论读者不大熟悉的细节,如示范段落[/font]16-1[font=宋体]。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=indigo][size=3][b]19[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]3 [/b][b][font=宋体]使用顺序法的一般准则[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=indigo][font=宋体]到目前为止,我们共讨论了四种组织段落顺序,使用哪一种顺序取决于作者的写作目的和读者对主题的熟悉程度。[/font][/color][/size]
    [color=indigo][size=3]1[font=宋体])如果你要说服别人相信一个观点,应该选用重要性顺序,把最好和最有力的理由放在能使读者最容易牢记的地方——段末。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=indigo][size=3]2[font=宋体])如果你要向读者准确地展示一个场面,则应选用空间顺序描述,以便你的读者能够在脑海中再现你所描绘的画面。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=indigo][size=3]3[font=宋体])如果读者对你要谈论的话题不大熟悉,则应从熟悉的观点着手。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=indigo][size=3]4[font=宋体])如果你要告诉读者发生了什么事情或怎样做某件事,则需要时间顺序。[/font][/size][/color]
    [b][size=3][color=indigo]Exercise 19-1[/color][/size][/b]
    [color=indigo][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Read the following two paragraphs and analyze their orders of organization[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [align=center][b][size=3][color=indigo] [/color][/size][/b][/align][align=center][color=indigo][size=3][b][font=宋体]([/font]1[/b][b][font=宋体])[/font][/b][/size][/color][/align][align=center][b][size=3][color=indigo] [/color][/size][/b][/align][color=indigo][size=3]Why are young people so enthusiastic about computers[font=宋体]?[/font]It is mainly because they find that the computer has a large number of desirable properties[font=宋体].[/font]First[font=宋体],[/font]it's not terribly demanding[font=宋体],[/font]and it does what it is told[font=宋体].[/font]Second[font=宋体],[/font]it's easier to be a friend to a computer[font=宋体],[/font]for it won't make fun of you[font=宋体].[/font]Nor does it scold you or talk back[font=宋体].[/font]Third[font=宋体],[/font]the computer is more interesting than any other object[font=宋体].[/font]Like people[font=宋体],[/font]it is interactive[font=宋体].[/font]When you ask it a question[font=宋体],[/font]it gives you an answer[font=宋体].[/font]And because it stores great quantities of information[font=宋体],[/font]it can oftenanswer more questions[font=宋体],[/font]more accurately[font=宋体],[/font]than human friends[font=宋体].[/font]Finally[font=宋体],[/font]by programing a computer[font=宋体],[/font]a youngster can create a world of his own[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=indigo][size=3]Topic Sentence[font=宋体]:[/font]____________________________________________[/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=indigo]______________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [color=indigo][size=3]Developing Method[font=宋体]:[/font]_________________________________________[/size][/color]
    [color=indigo][size=3]Details[font=宋体]:[/font]1[font=宋体].[/font]_______________________________________________[/size][/color]
    [color=indigo][size=3]2[font=宋体].[/font]_______________________________________________[/size][/color]
    [color=indigo][size=3]3[font=宋体].[/font]_______________________________________________[/size][/color]
    [color=indigo][size=3]4[font=宋体].[/font]_______________________________________________[/size][/color]
    [color=indigo][size=3]Order of Organization[font=宋体]:[/font]________________________________________[/size][/color]
    [align=center][b][size=3][color=indigo] [/color][/size][/b][/align][align=center][color=indigo][size=3][b][font=宋体]([/font]2[/b][b][font=宋体])[/font][/b][/size][/color][/align][align=center][b][size=3][color=indigo] [/color][/size][/b][/align][color=indigo][size=3]People travel because travel benefits them in a number of ways[font=宋体].[/font]First[font=宋体],[/font]it enables people to derive much pleasure from seeing sight sand snapping pictures[font=宋体].[/font]Second[font=宋体],[/font]it provides an effective way to get their mind off their work[font=宋体].[/font]It relieves them from strain and makes them thoroughly relaxed and ready to resume their work with rennewed efforts[font=宋体].[/font]Third[font=宋体],[/font]it offers an opportunity to visit old friends and make new friends[font=宋体],[/font]too[font=宋体].[/font]Finally[font=宋体],[/font]it allows people to see new customs[font=宋体],[/font]learn new things[font=宋体],[/font]gain new experience and enables them to come back with broader mind[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=indigo][size=3]Topic Sentence[font=宋体]:[/font]____________________________________________[/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=indigo]______________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [color=indigo][size=3]Developing Method[font=宋体]:[/font]________________________________________[/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=indigo][/color][/size]
    [color=indigo][size=3]Details[font=宋体]:[/font]1[font=宋体].[/font]______________________________________________[/size][/color]
    [color=indigo][size=3]2[font=宋体].[/font]______________________________________________[/size][/color]
    [color=indigo][size=3]3[font=宋体].[/font]______________________________________________[/size][/color]
    [color=indigo][size=3]4[font=宋体].[/font]______________________________________________[/size][/color]
    [color=indigo][size=3]Order of Organization[font=宋体]:[/font]______________________________________[/size][/color]
    [b][size=3][color=indigo]Exercise 19-1[/color][/size][/b]
    [color=indigo][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Write a paragraph about the unfavorable effects of advertisements[font=宋体],[/font]using order of importance[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=indigo]________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [b][size=3][color=indigo]Exercise 19-2[/color][/size][/b]
    [color=indigo][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Write a paragraph about the phenomena of the wasting of water[font=宋体],[/font]using order of familiarity[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=indigo]________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=indigo][/color][/size]
    [b][size=10.5pt]
    [/size][/b][size=3][color=indigo][/color][/size]