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    实用英语写作技巧之第二十一单元 从段落到篇章



    作者:abscottlee 阅读次数:8791


     
     
    [color=red][size=3][b]21[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]1 [/b][b][font=宋体]段落和篇章[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3][font=宋体]段落和篇章在长度上有明显的不同,但是它们在结构上是一致的。首先,段落是由表达其主题思想的主题句([/font]Topic Sentence[font=宋体])或主题导句([/font]Topic Introducer[font=宋体])引出的,而篇章中的首段也是该篇文章主题思想的导言和引言;其次,一个段落必须有若干个展开句使主题思想得以展开和充实,同样篇章的主体部分也是由几个推展或后续首段主题思想的段落组成。再者,在段落结束时有一个结尾句([/font]Concluding Sentence[font=宋体])总结段落的主旨,篇章也同样有一个对上下文进行归纳和总结主题思想的末段。尽管不是所有的段落和篇章都具备这样的完整结构,但典型的段落和篇章在结构上是一致的。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3][font=宋体]根据上述,让我们比较一下[/font]Model Paragraph 21-1[font=宋体]和[/font]Model Essay 21-2[font=宋体],后者的主题思想完全基于前者。所不同的是,[/font]Model Paragraph[font=宋体]中的六个句子①,②,③,④,⑤,⑥均已被扩展成[/font]Model Essay[font=宋体]中的六个段落。[/font][/size][/color]
    [b][size=3][color=red]Model Paragraph 21-1[/color][/size][/b]
    [color=red][size=3][font=宋体]①[/font]To be successful in a job interview[font=宋体],[/font]the applicant should demonstrate certain personal and professional qualities[font=宋体].②[/font]In as much as the first and often lasting impression of a person isdetermined by the clothes one wears[font=宋体],[/font]the job applicant should take care to appear well-groomed and modestly dressed[font=宋体],[/font]avoiding the extremes of too elaborate or too casual attire[font=宋体].③[/font]Besides care for personal appearance[font=宋体],[/font]one should pay close attention to one's manner of speaking[font=宋体],[/font]which should be neither showy nor too familiar but rather straightforward[font=宋体],[/font]grammatically accurate[font=宋体],[/font]and friendly[font=宋体].④[/font]In addition[font=宋体],[/font]one should be prepared to talk knowledgeably about the requirements of the position for which one is applying in relation to one's own professional experience and interests[font=宋体].⑤[/font]And finally[font=宋体],[/font]there ally impressive applicant must convey a sense of self-confidence and enthusiasm for work[font=宋体],[/font]factors which all interviewers value highly[font=宋体].⑥[/font]The job seeker who displays these characteristics[font=宋体],[/font]with just a little luck[font=宋体],[/font]will certainly succeed in a typical personal interview[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [b][size=3][color=red]Model Essay 21-2[/color][/size][/b]
    [color=red][size=3][font=宋体]①[/font]To be successful in a job interview[font=宋体],[/font]you should demonstrate certain personal and professional qualities[font=宋体].[/font]You need to create a good image in the limited time available[font=宋体],[/font]usually from 30 to 45 minutes[font=宋体].[/font]Furthermore[font=宋体],[/font]you must make a positive impression which the interviewer will remember while he interviews other applicants[font=宋体].[/font]A tall times[font=宋体],[/font]you should present your most attractive qualities during an interview[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3][font=宋体]②[/font]You should[font=宋体],[/font]for example[font=宋体],[/font]take care to appear well-groomed and modestly dressed[font=宋体],[/font]avoiding the extremes of too elaborate or too casual attire[font=宋体].[/font]On the positive side[font=宋体],[/font]clothes may be a good leveller[font=宋体],[/font]putting you on a par with other applicants and requiring the interviewer to consider more important qualifications[font=宋体].[/font]On the otherhand[font=宋体],[/font]clothes which are too informal may convey the impression that you are not serious about the job or that you may be casual about your work as well as your dress[font=宋体].[/font]Clothes which are too elaborate[font=宋体],[/font]too colorful[font=宋体],[/font]or too expensive suggest that you do not understand what behavior is appropriate for the job or that you are snobbish or frivolous[font=宋体].[/font]The right clothes worn at the right time[font=宋体],[/font]however[font=宋体],[/font]gain the respect of the interviewer and his confidence in your judgement[font=宋体].[/font]It may not be true that[font=宋体]“[/font]clothes make the man[font=宋体],”[/font]but the first and often lasting impression of you is determined by the clothes you wear[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3][font=宋体]③[/font]Besides care for personal appearance[font=宋体],[/font]you should pay close attention to your manner of speaking[font=宋体].[/font]Since speech is a reflection of personality[font=宋体],[/font]you should reflect confidence by speaking in a clear voice[font=宋体],[/font]loud enough to be heard without being aggressive or overpowering[font=宋体].[/font]Your speech should not call attention to itself[font=宋体],[/font]but it should reveal the individuality and ability of the speaker[font=宋体].[/font]Obviously[font=宋体],[/font]you must speak without grammatical errors or dialect differences for which you might be criticised or which might cause embrarrassment to the employer[font=宋体].[/font]Although there are cultural differences with respect to the formality of the job interview[font=宋体],[/font]your speech must show you to be a friendly and pleasant person[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3][font=宋体]④[/font]Speaking without a subject worth talking about will not impress anyone[font=宋体].[/font]You should be prepared to talk knowledgeably about the requirements of the position for which you are applying in relation to your own professional experiences and interests[font=宋体].[/font]Knowing something about the position enables you to ask intelligent questions about the work and requirements for the job[font=宋体].[/font]The interviewer candecide from the questions asked whether you are genuinely interested or knowledgeable[font=宋体].[/font]You can comment on your own training[font=宋体],[/font]experience[font=宋体],[/font]and other qualifications in relation to the specific tasks of the position[font=宋体].[/font]the interviewer can determine whether your background and potential seem to fit the position[font=宋体].[/font]The position for which you are applying is not only the safest topic for discussion[font=宋体],[/font]it is essential that you demonsrtate your understanding of the requirements and your abilities in meeting these requirements[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3][font=宋体]⑤[/font]Finally[font=宋体],[/font]to be really impressive you must convey a sense of self-confidence and enthusiasm for work[font=宋体].[/font]As already indicated[font=宋体],[/font]you demonstrate self-confidence by your manner of speech and dress[font=宋体].[/font]You further show it by being prepared for the interview with information and questions about the position[font=宋体].[/font]In addition[font=宋体],[/font]the way you enter the room[font=宋体],[/font]sit[font=宋体],[/font]look at the interviewer[font=宋体],[/font]and fill out application forms and other papers may express self-confidence[font=宋体].[/font]The eagerness with which you discuss the job rather than the salary may reveal your enthusiasm for work[font=宋体].[/font]You may express it also through your questions and comments about working conditions and facilities[font=宋体].[/font]And[font=宋体],[/font]Of course[font=宋体],[/font]your previous experience and success will tell the interviewer about your enthusiasm for work[font=宋体].[/font]Both of these qualities[font=宋体]—[/font]self-confidence and enthusiasm for work[font=宋体]—[/font]are valued highly by all interviewers[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3][font=宋体]⑥[/font]The appropriately dressed job applicant indicates his sound judgement[font=宋体].[/font]His manner of speaking suggests his friendliness and competence[font=宋体].[/font]His curiosity and information about the position he is seeking demonstrate his sincerity and potential in the job[font=宋体].[/font]He exhibits self-confidence through his knowledge[font=宋体],[/font]and he shows hisenthusiasm for work[font=宋体].[/font]If you display these characteristics[font=宋体],[/font]with just a little luck[font=宋体],[/font]you will certainly succeed in the typical personal interview[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3][b]21[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]2 [/b][b][font=宋体]段落与篇章的结构[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=red][font=宋体]根据所给范例,我们可以看到段落的结构很简单,它主要是由三部分组成的:[/font][/color][/size]
    [color=red][size=3]1[font=宋体])主题句([/font]Topic Sentence[font=宋体]):引出全段的主题思想。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3]2[font=宋体])几个支撑句([/font]Supporting Sentences[font=宋体]):说明或铺叙该段落的主题思想。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3]3[font=宋体])结尾句([/font]Concluding Sentence[font=宋体]):总结段落的主旨。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3][font=宋体]由此,范例段落的结构可表达为:[/font]TS/S1[font=宋体],[/font]S2[font=宋体],[/font]S3[font=宋体],[/font]S4/C=[/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3][font=宋体]①[/font]/[font=宋体]②,③,④,⑤[/font]/[font=宋体]⑥。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3]TS[font=宋体]:主题句[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3]S[font=宋体]:支撑句[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3]C[font=宋体]:结尾句[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3][font=宋体]同样,段落的组成结构[/font]TS/S1[font=宋体],[/font]S2[font=宋体],[/font]S3[font=宋体],[/font]S4/C[font=宋体]又可以说是篇章结构的扩展,篇章也由三部分组成:[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3]1[font=宋体])主题段([/font]Topic Paragraph[font=宋体]):引出并点明支配全篇文章的主题,指出主题所包含的几个方面,确定推展段的内容和形式。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3]2[font=宋体])支撑段([/font]Supporting Paragraphs[font=宋体]):由若干段落组成,对主题段所引出的主题展开讨论。其直接作用是支持各段的主题句,间接作用是辅助各段的主题句支持主题段中的主题思想。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3]3[font=宋体])结尾段([/font]Concluding Paragraph[font=宋体]):对全文归纳总结。一般可采用以下四种方式对全文进行归纳:[/font]a[font=宋体].简明归纳全文;[/font]b[font=宋体].回顾主题,使首尾呼应;[/font]c[font=宋体].变化措词,重申主题;[/font]d[font=宋体]、提出问题,启发思考。[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3][b]21[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]3 Model Paragraph 21-1[/b][b][font=宋体].和[/font]Model Essay 21-2[/b][b][font=宋体].的分析[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3][font=宋体]由此可以看出段落范例中的主题句已扩展成为篇章中的主题段;支撑句[/font]S1[font=宋体]发展为第一支撑段的主题句;支撑句[/font]S2[font=宋体]成为第二支撑段的主题句……;范例段中的结尾句则成了结尾段的主题句。[/font][/size][/color]
    [b][size=3][color=red]Exercise 21-1[/color][/size][/b]
    [color=red][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Find the key ideas in each of the sentences of model paragraph and write short answers for each on the line below[font=宋体].[/font]You may use words from the sentence or words of your own to express the key ideas[font=宋体].[/font]The first one will serve as an example for you[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3]e[font=宋体].[/font]g[font=宋体].[/font]successful interview requires certain qualities[/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3]____________________________________________[font=宋体]①[/font]topic sentence[/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3]____________________________________________[font=宋体]②[/font]____________[/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3]____________________________________________[font=宋体]③[/font]____________[/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3]____________________________________________[font=宋体]④[/font]____________[/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3]____________________________________________[font=宋体]⑤[/font]____________[/size][/color]
    [color=red][size=3]____________________________________________[font=宋体]⑥[/font]____________[/size][/color]
    [b][size=3][color=red]Exercise 21-2[/color][/size][/b]
    [color=red][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Read the model essay again[font=宋体],[/font]try to observe the plan of organization of the essay[font=宋体],[/font]and write out its organization[font=宋体].[/font]The organization of the model essay is[font=宋体]:[/font]____________[/size][/color]
    [b][size=10.5pt]
    [/size][/b][size=3][color=red][/color][/size]