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    实用英语写作技巧之第二十二单元 篇章的统一性、支撑性、连贯性和一致性



    作者:abscottlee 阅读次数:7695


     
     
    [size=3][color=sienna][b]22[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]1 [/b][b][font=宋体]篇章的统一性([/font]Unity of an Essay[/b][b][font=宋体])[/font][/b][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna][font=宋体]篇章的统一性是指各推展段落都必须紧扣主题思想,不包含与主题思想无关的任何部分。如果包含与主题思想无关的部分或出现多层意思,就会导致主旨不清,思路混乱。[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna][b]22[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]2 [/b][b][font=宋体]篇章的支撑性([/font]Support of an Essay[/b][b][font=宋体])[/font][/b][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna][font=宋体]只有通过具体的实例、事实、细节或事件对篇章中的主题思想加以充实和发挥,才能使文章的主题更加明确具体。例如:在[/font]Unit 21-2[font=宋体]范文中的四个[/font]Supporting Paragraphs[font=宋体]([/font]SP1[font=宋体],[/font]SP2[font=宋体],[/font]SP3[font=宋体],[/font]SP4[font=宋体])都是通过具体的实例、细节,来进一步明确本篇文章的主题思想—[/font]To be successful in a job interview[font=宋体],[/font]you must demonstrate cetain personal and professional qualities[font=宋体].[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna][b]22[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]3 [/b][b][font=宋体]篇章的连贯性([/font]Coherence of an Essay[/b][b][font=宋体])[/font][/b][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna][font=宋体]篇章的连贯性是指句子与句子,段落与段落的排列组合必须合乎逻辑(意连);句子间以及段落间的过渡必须自然流畅(形连)。篇章的意连有三种:[/font]a[font=宋体].[/font]Time Order or Chronological Order[font=宋体](时间顺序);[/font]b[font=宋体].[/font]Space or Spatial Order[font=宋体](位置或空间顺序);[/font]c[font=宋体].[/font]Logical Order[font=宋体](逻辑顺序)。其中,逻辑顺序又可分为三种:[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]1[font=宋体])[/font]Order of Importance[font=宋体](重要性顺序)[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]2[font=宋体])[/font]Specific-to-General[font=宋体](从具体到总论)[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]3[font=宋体])[/font]General-to-Spacific[font=宋体](从总论到具体)[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna][font=宋体]例如,在[/font]Unit 21[font=宋体]中的[/font]Model Essay[font=宋体]中,作者就是以[/font]General-to-Specific[font=宋体]的逻辑顺序来推展文章主题的。作者先是给出一个[/font]Topic Sentence[font=宋体],然后通过四个具体的“[/font]You should[font=宋体]……”对主题加以支撑、充实,从而达到了意连。[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna][font=宋体]而转换此词语([/font]Transitions[font=宋体])则是篇章形连的重要手段。[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]Unit 21[font=宋体]中的[/font]Model Essay[font=宋体]也正是通过许许多多的转换词语使文章达到了自然流畅。以下让我们就此范文的首段([/font]TP[font=宋体])和第一支撑段([/font]SP1[font=宋体])为例,来看看转换词语承上启下之作用。[/font][/color][/size]
    [align=center][size=3][color=sienna][img=447,367]mk:@MSITStore:F:\疯狂英语\实用英语写作技巧.chm::/SYYYXZJQ/42110037ZW_0023_1.gif[/img] [/color][/size][/align][size=3][color=sienna][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna][b]22[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]4 [/b][b][font=宋体]篇章的一致性([/font]Sentence Skills in an Essay[/b][b][font=宋体])[/font][/b][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna][font=宋体]若要读者完全、正确地领会我们所要表达的思想内容,在写作篇章时,我们必须简洁明白,写出合乎语法规范的句子,正确的语法包括([/font]nouns[font=宋体];[/font]pronouns[font=宋体];[/font]verb tenses[font=宋体];[/font]fragments[font=宋体](不完整的句子);[/font]dangling modifiers[font=宋体](垂悬修饰语);[/font]run-ons[font=宋体](用错逗号的句子或乱加从句的冗长句子),[/font]etc[font=宋体].[/font][/color][/size]
    [b][size=3][color=sienna]Exercise 22-1[/color][/size][/b]
    [size=3][color=sienna]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Two versions of a passage are given below[font=宋体].[/font]Both are unified[font=宋体],[/font]supported[font=宋体],[/font]and organized[font=宋体],[/font]but one version communicates more clearly and effectively its ideas than the other[font=宋体].[/font]Which one[font=宋体],[/font]and why[font=宋体]?[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]There are times when people are so tired that they fall asleep almost anywhere[font=宋体].[/font]For example[font=宋体],[/font]there is a lot of sleeping on the bus or train on the way home from work in the evenings[font=宋体].[/font]A man will be reading the newspaper[font=宋体],[/font]and seconds later it appears as if he is trying to eat it[font=宋体].[/font]Or he will fall asleep on the shoulder of the stranger sitting next to him[font=宋体].[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]Another place where unplanned naps go on is in the lecture hall[font=宋体].[/font]In some classes[font=宋体],[/font]a student will start snoring so loudly that the professor has to ask another student to shake the sleeper awake[font=宋体].[/font]Amore embarrassing situation occurs when a student leans on one elbow and starts drifting off to sleep[font=宋体].[/font]The weight of the head pushes the elbow off the desk[font=宋体],[/font]and this momentum carries the rest of the body along[font=宋体].[/font]The student wakes up on the floor with no memory of how he got there[font=宋体].[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]The worst time to fall asleep is when driving a car[font=宋体].[/font]Police reports are full of accidents that occur when people fall asleep at the wheel and go off the road[font=宋体].[/font]If the drivers are very lucky[font=宋体],[/font]they are not seriously hurt[font=宋体].[/font]One woman's car[font=宋体],[/font]for instance[font=宋体],[/font]went into the river[font=宋体].[/font]She woke up in four feet of water and thought it was raining[font=宋体].[/font]When people are really tired[font=宋体],[/font]nothing will stop them from falling asleep[font=宋体]—[/font]no matter where they are[font=宋体].[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna][font=宋体]([/font]1[font=宋体])[/font]There are times when people are so tired that they fall asleep almost anywhere[font=宋体].([/font]2[font=宋体])[/font]For example[font=宋体],[/font]on the bus or train on the way home from work[font=宋体].([/font]3[font=宋体])[/font]A man will be reading the newspaper[font=宋体],[/font]seconds later it appears as if he is trying to eat it[font=宋体].([/font]4[font=宋体])[/font]Or he will fall asleep on the shoulder of the stranger sitting next to him[font=宋体].[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna][font=宋体]([/font]5[font=宋体])[/font]Another place where unplanned naps go on are in the lecture hall[font=宋体].([/font]6[font=宋体])[/font]In some classes[font=宋体],[/font]a student will start snoring so loudly that the professor has to ask another student to shake the sleeper awake[font=宋体].([/font]7[font=宋体])[/font]A more embarrassing situation occurs when a student leans on one elbow and starting to drift off to sleep[font=宋体].([/font]8[font=宋体])[/font]The weight of the head push the elbow off the desk[font=宋体],[/font]and this momentum carries the rest of the body along[font=宋体].([/font]9[font=宋体])[/font]The student wakes up on the floor with no memory of how he got there[font=宋体].[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna][font=宋体]([/font]10[font=宋体])[/font]The worst time to fall asleep is when driving a car[font=宋体].([/font]11[font=宋体])[/font]Police reports are full of accidents that occur when people conk out and go off the road[font=宋体].([/font]12[font=宋体])[/font]If the drivers are lucky they are not seriously hurt[font=宋体].([/font]13[font=宋体])[/font]One womans car[font=宋体],[/font]for instance went into the river[font=宋体].([/font]14[font=宋体])[/font]She woke up in four feet of water[font=宋体].([/font]15[font=宋体])[/font]And thought it was raining[font=宋体].([/font]16[font=宋体])[/font]When people are really tired[font=宋体],[/font]nothing will stopthem from falling asleep[font=宋体]—[/font]no matter where they are[font=宋体].[/font][/color][/size]
    [b][size=3][color=sienna]Exercise 22-2[/color][/size][/b]
    [size=3][color=sienna]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Compare the second version with the first one[font=宋体],[/font]and choose the correct answers from the following choices[font=宋体]([/font]The exercise is mainly for sentence skills[font=宋体])[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]1[font=宋体].[/font]In sentence[font=宋体]([/font]2[font=宋体]),[/font] 2[font=宋体].[/font]In sentence[font=宋体]([/font]3[font=宋体]),[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]a[font=宋体].[/font]missing comma a[font=宋体].[/font]run-on[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]b[font=宋体].[/font]missing apostrophe b[font=宋体].[/font]sentence fragment[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]c[font=宋体].[/font]sentence fragment c[font=宋体].[/font]mistake in subject-verb agreement[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]d[font=宋体].[/font]dangling modifier d[font=宋体].[/font]irregular verb mistake[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]3[font=宋体].[/font]In sentence[font=宋体]([/font]5[font=宋体]),[/font] 4[font=宋体].[/font]In sentence[font=宋体]([/font]7[font=宋体]),[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]a[font=宋体].[/font]sentence fragment a[font=宋体].[/font]misplaced modifier[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]b[font=宋体].[/font]spelling error b[font=宋体].[/font]dangling modifier[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]c[font=宋体].[/font]run-on c[font=宋体].[/font]mistake in parallelism[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]d[font=宋体].[/font]mistake in subject-verb d[font=宋体].[/font]run-on[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]agreement[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]5[font=宋体].[/font]In sentenc[font=宋体]([/font]8[font=宋体]),[/font] 6[font=宋体].[/font]In sentence[font=宋体]([/font]11[font=宋体]),[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]a[font=宋体].[/font]nonstandard English verb a[font=宋体].[/font]irregular verb mistake[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]b[font=宋体].[/font]run-on b[font=宋体].[/font]sentence fragment[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]c[font=宋体].[/font]comma mistake c[font=宋体].[/font]slang phrase[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]d[font=宋体].[/font]missing capital letter d[font=宋体].[/font]mistake in subject-verb agreement[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]7[font=宋体].[/font]In sentence[font=宋体]([/font]12[font=宋体]),[/font] 8[font=宋体].[/font]In sentence[font=宋体]([/font]13[font=宋体]),[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]a[font=宋体].[/font]missing apostrophe a[font=宋体].[/font]mistake in parallelism[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]b[font=宋体].[/font]missing comma b[font=宋体].[/font]irregular verb mistake[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]c[font=宋体].[/font]irregular verb mistake c[font=宋体].[/font]missing apostrophe[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]d[font=宋体].[/font]sentence fragment d[font=宋体].[/font]missing capital letter[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]9[font=宋体].[/font]In sentence[font=宋体]([/font]13[font=宋体]),[/font] 10[font=宋体].[/font]In sentence[font=宋体]([/font]15[font=宋体]),[/font][/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]a[font=宋体].[/font]missing comma around an a[font=宋体].[/font]missing quotation mark[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]interrupter[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]b[font=宋体].[/font]dangling modifier b[font=宋体].[/font]irregular verb mistake[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]c[font=宋体].[/font]run-on c[font=宋体].[/font]sentence fragment[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna]d[font=宋体].[/font]cliché d[font=宋体].[/font]mistake in pronoun point of view[/color][/size]
    [b][size=10.5pt]
    [/size][/b][size=3][color=sienna][/color][/size]