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    实用英语写作技巧之第二十四单元 如何用比较与对照法推展篇章



    作者:abscottlee 阅读次数:5620


     
     
    [color=sienna][size=3][b]24[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]1 Comparison and Contrast[/b][b][font=宋体](比较与对照)[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]Often we may want to describe several aspects of two subjects that have both similarities and differences[font=宋体].[/font]When we compare two things[font=宋体],[/font]we show how they are similar[font=宋体];[/font]when we contrast two things[font=宋体],[/font]we show how they are different[font=宋体].[/font]We may compare or contrast two schools[font=宋体],[/font]two cars[font=宋体],[/font]two friends[font=宋体],[/font]two jobs[font=宋体],[/font]two cities[font=宋体],[/font]etc[font=宋体]..[/font]For this purpose[font=宋体],[/font]we may employ the combined techniques of comparison and contrast[font=宋体].[/font]In writing the essay[font=宋体],[/font]you should always bear two important decisions in mind[font=宋体]:①[/font]Whether you are to do a comparison[font=宋体],[/font]a contrast[font=宋体],[/font]or a mixture[font=宋体],[/font]or[font=宋体]②[/font]Whether you are to use an item-to-item[font=宋体](逐事比较)[/font]or point-to-point[font=宋体](逐点比较)[/font]method of development[font=宋体]([/font]both have been explained and illustrated in Unit14[font=宋体])[/font][/size][/color]
    [b][size=3][color=sienna]Model Essay 24-1[/color][/size][/b]
    [color=sienna][size=3]Shanghai and New York are two of the biggest cities in the world[font=宋体].[/font]They are different in some ways[font=宋体],[/font]but they are similar in some other ways[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]Shanghai is one of the most densely populated cities in Asia[font=宋体],[/font]and New York is one of the most densely populated cities in North America[font=宋体].[/font]The population of Shanghai is homogenous[font=宋体],[/font]but thepopulation of New York is heterogeneous[font=宋体].[/font]The people in Shanghai speak Chinese[font=宋体];[/font]the people in New York speak English instead[font=宋体].[/font]The cost of living in Shanghai is generally low in comparison with that in New York[font=宋体].[/font]While the people in Shanghai take buses or ride bikes to go to work[font=宋体],[/font]the people in New York drive cars or take subways to get to work[font=宋体].[/font]The people in Shanghai use fans to keep cool[font=宋体],[/font]where as the people in New York use air-conditioning[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]Both Shanghai and New York are cities of great wealth and poverty[font=宋体].[/font]In both cities[font=宋体],[/font]there is a great deal of beauty and a great deal of ugliness[font=宋体].[/font]Many people in Shanghai are as kind and helpful as those in New York[font=宋体].[/font]Conversely[font=宋体],[/font]some people in Shanghai are as dangerous as those in New York[font=宋体].[/font]In both cities[font=宋体],[/font]there are people who work all day and people who work all night[font=宋体].[/font]Both cities are never asleep[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]To some visitors[font=宋体],[/font]both Shanghai and New York are a paradise and a jungle[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][b]24[/b][b][font=宋体].[/font]2 Analysis of the Model Essay[/b][b][font=宋体](范文分析)[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]From the above point-to-point essay[font=宋体],[/font]we can see that the similarities and differences of Shanghai and New York are as follows[font=宋体]:[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][b][font=宋体]①[/font]Differences[/b][b][font=宋体]:[/font][/b][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]a[font=宋体].[/font]population[font=宋体]([/font]homogeneous S[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]([/font]heterogeneous NY[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]b[font=宋体].[/font]language [font=宋体]([/font]Chinese S[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]([/font]English NY[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]C[font=宋体].[/font]cost of living[font=宋体]([/font]low S[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]([/font]high NY[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]d[font=宋体].[/font]transportation[font=宋体]([/font]buses and bikes S[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]([/font]cars and subways NY[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]e[font=宋体].[/font]cooling appliances[font=宋体]([/font]fans S[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]([/font]air-conditioning NY[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]②[/font]Similarities[font=宋体]:[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]a[font=宋体].[/font]both are most densely populated[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]b[font=宋体].[/font]both are cities of great wealth and poverty[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]c[font=宋体].[/font]both are beautiful and ugly[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]d[font=宋体].[/font]both have kind and helpful people and dangerous people[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]e[font=宋体].[/font]both are never asleep[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3][font=宋体]通过以上比较和对照法的结合使用,作者巧妙地将与主题有关的五个异同点联系在一起,交替进行逐点比较、对照,这使得读者从始至终能够把握比较与对照的线索。而且,作者又在比较与对照的结构上灵活地安排了次序,使对比既鲜明突出,又富有变化;作者还通过不同的连接手段,如并列连词“[/font]and[font=宋体],[/font]both[font=宋体],[/font]as[font=宋体]…[/font]as[font=宋体]”,与转折连词“[/font]but[font=宋体],[/font]instead[font=宋体],[/font]while[font=宋体],[/font]whereas[font=宋体],[/font]in comparision with[font=宋体]”等,使得比较与对照自然流畅,前后连贯。[/font][/size][/color]
    [b][size=3][color=sienna]Writing Assignment for Unit 24[/color][/size][/b]
    [color=sienna][size=3]Directions[font=宋体]:[/font]Write a 3-paragraph essay about the similarities and differences between Tom and Jack by using the outline given below[font=宋体].[/font]Don't forget to use some of the Comparative and Contrastive words or phrases given in Unit 35[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]Tom and Jack are twin brothers[font=宋体].[/font]They are similar in some ways[font=宋体];[/font]but the ways they spend their own freetime[font=宋体],[/font]make decisions and deal with problems are very different[font=宋体].[/font][/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]Similarities[font=宋体]:[/font]1[font=宋体])[/font]appearance[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]2[font=宋体])[/font]eating habits[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]3[font=宋体])[/font]study[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]Differences[font=宋体]:[/font]1[font=宋体])[/font]ways of spending free time[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]2[font=宋体])[/font]ways of making decisions[/size][/color]
    [color=sienna][size=3]3[font=宋体])[/font]ways of dealing with problems[/size][/color]
    [size=3][color=sienna]______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________[/color][/size]
    [size=3][color=sienna][/color][/size]
    [b][size=10.5pt]
    [/size][/b][size=3][color=sienna][/color][/size]