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【151】句子合成法 - 英语讲义
两个或两个以上简单句(Simple Sentence)可以合成一个较长的简单句、并列句(Compound Sentence)或复杂句(Complex Sentence)。通过句子的合成，我们得以更清楚地看出句子间的语义关系，而且还可以使句子多样化，增加文章的丰姿。
(1) John ran away. He escaped the danger.
→ Running away, John escaped the danger.
(2) The hunter took up his gun. He shot the boar.
→ The hunter took up his gun to shoot the boar.
(3) The king died. The queen heard about it. She fainted.
→ On hearing about the king's death, the queen fainted.
(4) Kelvin is my good friend. He is a strong supporter of social justice.
→ Kelvin, a strong supporter of social justice, is my good friend.
(5) The rascal kicked the cat. He kicked it on the back. He kicked it intentionally.
→ The rascal kicked the cat on the back intentionally.
(6) John was sad. He kept quiet.
→ John was sad but he kept quiet.
(7) Take the book. Leave it there.
→ Take the book or leave it there.
(8) Sean did not come to class today. He had a bad headache.
→ Sean did not come to class today, for he had a bad headache.
(9) Bruce was lying on the bed. He looked at the ceiling. He saw a lizard.
→ Lying on the bed, Bruce looked at the ceiling and saw a lizard.
(10) Kelvin is getting rich. We know about it.
→ We know that kelvin is getting rich.
(11) I like this book. It contains many amusing stories.
→ I like this book which contains many amusing stories.
(12) Helen is sure to get her pay. It is due to her. Why does she complain?
→ Why does Helen complain since she is sure to get the pay due to her ?
(13) The woman was exhausted. She had not slept well the previous night.
→ The woman was exhausted because she had not slept well the previous night.
上面例子显示，简单句由“主语+谓语”(Subject + Predicate) 构成，有时还附有修饰性的短语。并列句由至少两个地位平等的并列分句透过并列连词 (Coordinating Conjunction)如”and, or, but, so, for”等连成。复杂句包括一个主句 (Main Clause)及至少一个从句 (Subordinate Clause)， 通过从属连词(Subordinating Conjunction) 如”That, since, because, when, if”等合成。从属分句因功能不同而分成“名词从句”(Noun Clause), “副词从句”(Adverb Clause) 和“形容词从句”(Adjective Clause)。