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    【137】词语的搭配 - 英语讲义



    作者:欢乐鱼 阅读次数:1736


     
     
    词语的搭配

      不管是从句法或修辞角度看,词语的搭配,都占据重要的位置,不可不察。

      一般上说,下列这些场合中的词语要配合好,句子的结构才会和谐,词语才会相称:

      ① 主语—动词

      ② 动词—宾语

      ③ 修饰语—词类

      ④ 形容词—名词

      ⑤ 副词—动词

      ⑥ 形容词分句—先行词

      词语的搭配,对学习中英文的人来说尤其重要,因为中英文在词语的搭配上有同有异。例如英语同一个动词“wear”,可以和不同的名词宾语搭配,如:WEAR+shoes/ clothes/ spectacles等。中文就不行;中文的“穿”只能和“衣鞋”连用,“眼镜”就要改为“戴”了。

      再举“cut”为例。英语里可以说“CUT+ grass/ finger-nails/ a tooth/ prices/ a stone figure/ a record”。在中文里“cut”(割)只能和“草”连用;其他的名词宾语,就需要别的动词,如:剪指甲、出牙齿、减价、雕刻石像、灌录唱片。

      同样道理,中文里同一个动词,英语里却需要不同动词,如:

      “风萧萧、雨萧萧、马萧萧、树萧萧”——the wind whistled, the rain pattered, the horse neighed, the tree murmured.

      在英语的错误中,词语的搭配不是严重的一类,但也时有出现。例如①a里的动词“harmed”和主语“houses”不合;②里的宾语“knowledge”及“experience”和动词“exercise”格格不入;③a里的修饰语“upset”和被修饰的名词“eyes”很不相称。把它们改为①b、②b和③b之后,词语间的搭配就很舒畅了:

      ①a. Many houses in the low-lying area were harmed by the floods.

       b. Many houses in the low-lying area were damaged by the floods.

      ②a. This will give you an opportunity to exercise your knowledge and experience.

       b. This will give you an opportunity to use/ make use of your knowledge and experience.

      ③a. Upset by the thick smoke, Susan's eyes were filled with tears.

       b. Irritated by the thick smoke, Susan's eyes were filled with tears.

       现在请看看下列各句中都有个不相称的词语,改正后,才顺口:

      ④ The authorities preferred to educate dog owners rather than jeopardise them for every little transgression. (penalise/punish)

      ⑤ Anyone charged with skyrocketing a political regime will be severely dealt with. (dismantling/disintegrating)

      ⑥ Weapons easily become slipshod and the need to acquire new arms can be very ruinous to national coffers. (obsolete/outmoded)

      ⑦ Good health is especically vital to old people who are prone to anticipatory diseases. (degenerative)

      ⑧ Some people are sanguine about the situation and think that the scandal would soon blow over without severe misery of the present political system. (dislocation/dysfunction)

    关键字:英语讲义