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    【99】动词时态要一致 - 英语讲义



    作者:欢乐鱼 阅读次数:3475


     
     
    动词时态要一致

      “To arrange for an appointment with us, please complete the reply slip and sent it back to us.”

      上面这句话很好,很客气,但是第二分句的动词sent的时态不对,应该改为send,从过去简单时态变成现在简单时态,使两个等立分句中的动词时态一致。

      在语法上,这叫做时态的一致(sequence of tenses)。下面是几个指导原则:

    Ⅰ 主句(main clause)里的动词是过去时态的话,名词从句(noun clause)或副词从句(adverb clause)里的动词也要以过去式出现,如:
    ● Tom said/ that he was busy yesterday.
    ● Janet wanted to know/ why she was not given a more important job.
    ● Lily failed/ because she did not submit the project report.
    ● None could help you/ if you continued being lazy.
    ● Although David was unwell,/ he went to office as usual.

      这原则有两个例外,即:

      (i)当名词从句表达一种真理或既成事实时,其动词时态是现在式,如:
    ● Newton discovered/ that gravitation causes apples to fall.
    ● Our elders told us/ that experience is the best teacher.

      (ii)比较性的副词从句里的动词时态有伸缩性,视情况而定,不一定非过去式不可,如:
    ● Susan valued his advice more/ than she values mine.
    ● Peter weighed as much/ as I shall weigh after my dinner.

    Ⅱ 主句里的动词时态是现在式时,名词从句或副词从句的时态可以是现在式,也可以是其他适合的时态,如:
    ● Jim believes/ that he will get the job.
    ● The officer has just told us/that his annual leave was approved weeks ago.
    ● Christine is infuriated/ because she was criticised for her sloppy work.

    Ⅲ 形容词从句(adjective clause)中的时态最自由,最不受拘束,如:
    ● Tom mooted the idea/which some ignored, which others tend to attack, but which many will eventually accept.

      这句里的主句动词是过去式,第一个形容词从句的动词虽是过去,第二个里的却是现在式,第三个里的是将来式。

      最后请看看这句话:

      “President Clinton stated/ that he will not run in the next presidential election.”

      按照常理,名词从句里的“will not run”要改为“would not run”才能和主句里的过去式“stated”一致。论者把这种现象视为 “特殊情况”,算是给名人的“特权”吧!一般人还是遁常道而行,避免争议。


    关键字:英语讲义