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    【85】被动句中的动词形态 - 英语讲义



    作者:欢乐鱼 阅读次数:926


     
     
    被动句中的动词形态

      信箱里有一张装修商的传单,上面有这句话:

      Exchange this leaflet for a free gift and also be entitle to a lucky draw with no purchase required.

      这句话清楚吗?很清楚!问题是第二个并列分句的被动语态的动词形态“entitle”不对。为什么不对呢?这就要从主动语态(the active voice)和被动语态(the passive voice)的差别谈起。

      在主动语态里,主语是动作的主角,如:
    ① I have just bought a new dictionary.
    ② They will invite you to dinner.

      在被动语态里,宾语成为主角,原来的主语则靠边站,移至句后,如:
    ③ A new dictionary has just been bought by me.
    ④ You will be invited to dinner by them.

      在被动语态的结构里,最重要的成分是接系动词“be”+主动词的过去分词(be+past participle of the principal verb)。③里的”has been bought”和④里的“will be invited”便是这个成分。根据这原则,“be entitle”就要改为“be entitled”才行。

      现在多看看几个例子:
    ⑤ One must do the work properly.→The work must be properly done.
    ⑥ Someone took down the pictures.→The pictures were taken down.
    ⑦ Anne gave John a photo.→John was given a photo by Anne.

      在⑤和⑥里,原来的主语不重要,所以在被动句中被省略了。在 ⑦里,我们看到两个宾语,一个是直接宾语(direct object)“a photo”,另一个是间接宾语(indirect object)”John”。直接宾语一定是“事物”;间接宾语就是“人物”。

      这样的主动语态,有两种变法。除了”John was given a photo by Anne”之外,另一个方法是“A photo was given to John by Anne.”

      在日常英语用途上,直接语态比间接语态用得多。但在下列情况中,则应采用被动语态:

      ㈠主语不详,如:
    ① A puppy was knocked down.
    ② Actions must be taken to improve the economic situation.

      ㈡突出宾语,如:
    ③ The gangster was sent to prison.
    ④ Two eye witnesses have been questioned.
    ⑤ All good students will be rewarded.

      ㈢不方便提到主语,如:
    ⑥ Some students are said to be often late for class.
    ⑦ The name of the suspect has been submitted to the police.

      ㈣动词习惯以被动式出现,如:
    ⑧ You are expected to work hard from now on.
    ⑨ The last train is scheduled to leave at 10p.m.
    ⑩ All loyal citizens are supposed to defend their country.

      ①—⑩这些被动句中的原有主语通常被省略,不出现。


    关键字:英语讲义