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    【83】容易犯错的形容词从句 - 英语讲义



    作者:欢乐鱼 阅读次数:5168


     
     
    容易犯错的形容词从句

      在三种英语从句中,名词从句与副词从句用得较多,错误也较少。形容词从句用得较少,但却最易犯错,尤其是下列四种错法:

      ㈠重复形容词中的宾语。例如:

    *① The essay which John wrote it yesterday got a good grade.

    *② Do you know the name of the man whom the police are looking for him?

      在①里的形容词从句中的“it”和②里的“him”都是重复的宾语,因为这两个宾语已经由关系代词“which”和“whom”接管了。因此,“it”和“him”是多余的,必须去掉。

      ㈡关系代词或关系副词不对。例如:

    *③ This is the dog who ate up the food.

    *④ Do you know the time which we must resume work?

      ③里的关系代词“who”和④里的“which”都错。③里的先行词是一种动物,关系代词里“which”或“that”才对。④里的先行词是“时间”,应该用关系副词“when”才可。

      ㈢形容词从句修饰的对象不符。例如:

    *⑤ Malcolm finished the work and then left the office which was well-planned.

      这里的形容词从句“which was well-planned”,应该修饰名词 “the work”,不是“the office”,因此犯了修饰的对象不符之错。最容易的改正方法,是使这个从句紧扣在先行词“the work”后面,即:

    ⑥ Malcolm finished the work which was well-planned and then left the office.

      这样的改正虽然符合语法,但句子显得头重脚轻,失去平衡;对是对,但是不好。我建议重整从句,以臻“既对且好”之境。试比较 7(a), (b)和(c):

    ⑦a. Malcolm left the office after he had finished the work which was well-planned.

     b. Malcolm left the office after having finished the work which was well-planned.

     c. Malcolm finished the well-planned work and then left the office.

      三句中,⑦(c)一气呵成,短小精悍,是上选。此外,⑦(c)把形容词从句节缩为合成形容词(compound adjective),使句子简练有力。这点足以证明节缩句的好处。关于节缩方法,以后再谈。在了解节缩法之前,千万不要随便尝试,以免犯错。例如: *⑧ A sentence is made up of a subject and a predicate is called a simple sentence.

      ⑧里的“is made up of a subject and a predicate”是形容词从句“which is made up of a subject and a predicate”的节缩体,但是错了。

      根据形容词从句的缩略规则,如果形容词从句是被动式的话,就要把关系代词和助动词“be”一齐去掉:

    ⑨ Do you like the man who was introduced to you yesterday? → Do you like the man introduced to you yesterday?

    ⑩ Please fill in each of the blanks which are provided below. → Please fill in each of the blanks provided below.

      ⑧里的关系代词不见了,但是助动词“is”还在,莫怪整句读起来,有点不顺口;因此要改一改;

    ╆ A sentence made up of a subject and a predicate is called a simple sentence.



    关键字:英语讲义