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    【72】名词修饰语㈡ - 英语讲义



    作者:欢乐鱼 阅读次数:9448


     
     
    名词修饰语㈡

    上一期举出了10种名词修饰语,它们多数是出现在名词前面的单字单词。

      这里要谈及另外两种很重要的名词修饰语:一种是形容词短语( adjective phrases);另一种是形容词从句(adjective clauses)。

      形容词短语分介词短语(如例①)、现在分词短语(如例②)和过去分词短语(如例③):

      ① in the corner, on the table, from China, of great ability等,如: The books on the table are mine.

      ② standing on the platform, seeing the danger, hearing the noise等,如: Standing on the platform, the speaker looked nervous.

      ③ taken by surprise, awakened by the noise, frightened out of his wits等,如: Awakened by the noise, the baby cried.

      就位置来说,介词短语紧随被修饰的名词,如:

      ④ The man in the corner looks pale.

      ⑤ The flowers in the vase are fading.

      ⑥ I have met many visitors from China.

      现在分词短语由现在分词引导而出,可以在主语名词前面(如例 ⑦)或后面(如例⑧),也可以在宾语后面(如例⑨):

      ⑦ Looking at the gigantic stranger, the small girl cried.

      ⑧ Jim, seeing the danger, hurried home.

      ⑨ Can you see the fish swimming in the pool?

      过去分词短语,由过去分词带头,出现的位置和现在分词相同,如:

      ⑩ Taken completely by surprise, the enemy gave in.

      ● Peter, frightened out of his wits, stood rooted to the spot.

      ● We were sorry to see the dog chained to the tree all day long.

      现在分词短语和过去分词短语形式不同,性质也异。前者主动,后者被动。

      上述三种形容词短语出现率很高,不可等闲视之 。

      最后一种出现率高的名词修饰语,是众所周知的形容词从句。形容词从句由关系代词(the relative pronoun)“who, which, that, whose”等或关系副词(the relative adverb)“where, when, why”等引导而出现在被修饰的名词后头;这样的名词叫先行词(the antecedent)。例如:

      ● Dr Yang is a renowned scientist who specialises in physics.

      ● The book which deals with translation is Jason's masterpiece.

      ● Have you read the report on education that came out yesterday?

      ● David is the new director whose most urgent job is to reorganise the department.

      ● The writer whom you praised in your review felt greatly grateful for your admiration.

      ● This is the university where I studied 30 years ago.

      ● Gone are the days when people could live happily without the stresses and strains of a busy life.

      ● The reason why Harold suddenly resigned is not known.

      ● The host gave us such food as we could eat.


    关键字:英语讲义