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    【24】间接引语的错误 - 英语讲义



    作者:欢乐鱼 阅读次数:4478


     
     
    间接引语的错误

     在英语里,我们可以用两种方法转述人的话语。第一种是直接引语(The Direct   Speech);第二种是间接引语(The Indirect Speech),也可叫“The Reported Speech”)。

      从直接引语转变为间接引语是一种表达行式的改变,不影响原意。例如:

      ① a. He said, "I am working now."

        b. He said that he was working then.

      ② a. She asked me, "Do you like to sing?"

        b. She asked me if I liked to sing.

      ③ a. "Go out!" the man said to the boy.

       b. The man ordered the boy to go out.

      ①b, ②b, ③b是间接引语,其形式和①a, ②a, ③a不同。

      间接引语是种常见的句法,用得很多。正因为用得多,出错的机会也多。下面便是些例子:

      ④ He said that he would come tomorrow.

      这里的副词“tomorrow”要变成“the next day”。理由是:间接引语里的时间副词或短语, 一般上要把其中的时间向前推,如: tomorrow: the next day; today: that day; last night: the night before; now: then; ago: before that time 等。

      ⑤ I asked what is wrong with him.

       这里的“is”要变成“was”。须知:主句“I asked”和分句 “what is wrong with him”的动词时态必须配合。既然主句的动词 “asked”是过去时态,分句的动词也要过去时态“was”。此外,动词时态一般上也要推前,因此简单过去时态(Simple Past Tense)要变成过去完成时态(Past Perfect Tense),如:went : had gone; left : had left.

      ⑥ John told her don't do that again.

      这里的“don't do”要变成“not to do”才对。理由是:祈使句变成间接引语时的形式是不定式动词:“to + verb / not to + verb”,如:to come / not to come; to do / not to do.

      ⑦ She asked me where was I going.

      这里的“was I”词序不对, 要变成“I was”才是,因为间接疑问句(indirect question)里的词序和叙述句一样,是正常词序,不是倒装法,如:

      ⑧ He wanted to know who that girl was.

      ⑨ John asked Helen if she was free.

      ⑩ She asked me whether I could help her.

      如果词序是倒装形式,就错了:

      *...who was that girl.

      *...if was she free.

      *...whether could I help her.

      关于间接疑问句,还有一点必须注意的是,直接疑问句里的疑问词要照用, 如例⑧的“who”。如果没有疑问词,就要借重连接词“ if”或“ whether”之助,如例⑨和⑩便是。

      在结束本文之前,顺便提一提怎样把表示惊叹或愿望的直接引语转成间接引语。

      11. He said, "Alas! I am undone."

      12. "Bravo! You have done a good job, Mary," said the teacher.

      13. "Good Heaven!' Tom cried, "I'll never lie again."

      把11-13,转变为14-16时, 可以用恰当的动词把深层的意思反映出来,甚至加些原文没有的字眼,也无所谓:

      14. He exclaimed that he was undone.

      15. The teacher praised Mary, saying that she had done a good job.

      16. Tom called upon Heaven to witness his determination not to lie again.

    关键字:英语讲义