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    【10】语态:主动与被动的关系 - 英语讲义



    作者:欢乐鱼 阅读次数:3776


     
     
    语态:主动与被动的关系

    众所周知,被动语态是一种语法手段,使句子里谓语动词后面的宾语,变成主语,成为动作的执行者。因此,当我们要把动作的承受者变成动作的主宰时,便要用被动语态(the passive voice)。

      麻烦的是,不是所有的主动语态(the active voice)都可以转变为被动语态,因为有些及物动词(the transitive verb)是不适合以被动形式出现的。

      下列句子可以证明:

      ① I have a Japanese car.

      ② The auditorium holds 3000 people.

      ③ This coat does not fit you.

      ④ Jane resembles her mother.

      ⑤ Tom jumped the queue.

      ⑥ I wish you would mind your business.

      ⑦ Such an idea has just crossed my mind.

      此外,有些及物动词虽以主动语态出现,却具有被动含义,故不宜再转变为被动语态。其实,也不能变,因为这些动词后面没有宾语。例如:

      ⑧ This new knife cuts well.

      ⑨ Nylon shirts wash easily.

      ⑩ Jason's books sell quickly.

      11. This type of ball pens writes in two colours.

      12. The note reads as follows : "..."

      另有些动词,虽有主动语态,但却常以被动形式出现,以便更加符合动词惯用法。例如:

      13. The train is scheduled to leave at 8pm.

      14. All are supposed to come to the meeting on time.

      15. The case was reported to the police.

      13到15的主动语态为下,但却少见:

      *The railway officer schedules the train to leave at 8pm.

      *The director supposes all to come to the meeting on time.

      *Someone reported the case to the police.

      最后还有一种情形,就是相当多动词出现在“be + 过去分词” 的结构里。看上去,它们像是被动语态;实际上,并没有被动的含义。更有趣的是,这些“be”后头的过去分词(the past participle )已经渐渐转化为形容词,充当“be”和其他接击动词(linking verbs)的补足语(the complement);因此不能和被动语态混为一谈。下面是 8 个常见的例子:

      16. Many undergraduates here are interested in business administration courses.

      17. We were surprised at the unexpected news.

      18. Most successful people are distinguished for their courage and diligence.

      19. David was very pleased with my work.

      20. One can be tired of doing anything some of the time.

      21. We are quite concerned about our friend's predicament.

      22. Joelle is overwhelmed with joy.

      23. Are you acquainted with that field of study?  

    关键字:英语讲义