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    【2】动词的运用有学问 - 英语讲义



    作者:欢乐鱼 阅读次数:3870


     
     
    动词的运用有学问

    英语的动词必须在人称(person)、数目(number)、性别( gender)和格(case)这些方面和主语取得一致或互相呼应。

      在学生的英文作文中,动词与主语呼应上的错误,经常出现。

      下面这句话来自一个重要的公共部门的通告,里面也出现了动词与主语不一致的错误:

      ABC corporation, with its five main subsidiary companies, have taken over the operations of the previous electricity and gas departments of XXX with effect from 1 october 1995.

      这里的主语是“ABC corporation”,它是单数的,动词也应该是单数的 has,不是复数的 have,因此犯了动词与主语不对应的错误。

      既然这是个常见的错误,我们便要特别留意,并且记住下面这些指导原则:

      ●动词和主语在人称和数目上要一致,如:
      ① I am a writer.
      ② Helen is an editor.
      ③ They have a good future.
      ④ Dr Chen teaches us English.
      ⑤ Some old houses were burnt to the ground.
      ⑥ A deserted hut has already been demolished.

      ●两个或两个以上的单数主语由连接词“and”贯串起来时,便成了复数,动词也要复数,如:
      ⑦ David and Jason are colleagues.
      ⑧The driver and the passenger were involved in a quarrel.

      ●两个主语由“with”或“as well as ”等连接时,动词要和第一个主语的人称及数目呼应,如:
      ⑨ A woman with her puppies is walking along the lake.
      ⑩ The monitor as well as the other students has been scolded.

      ●两个主语由“either...or”或“neither...nor”连接时,动词要和第二个主语的人称及数目呼应,如:
      11. Either you or your friend is wrong.
      12. Neither John nor his classmates have said it.

      ●集合名词(collective noun)当整体看待时,动词是单数,如:
      13. The steering committee is made up of five members.
      14. The jury has made its final decision.

      有时可以个别看待集合名词里的成员,这时这些成员合起来便变成复数,动词也是复数了,如:
      15. The committee have met once and they will meet again next month.
      16. Despite hours of deliberations, the jury were still divided in their opinions.


    关键字:英语讲义