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|[font=Arial][size=2] [/size][/font]虚拟语气的相关语法(Subjunctive Mood) |
1. I wish I were a bird.
2. We request that you be here tomorrow.
也许你会说：“哈哈，第一句的I were 错了，应该是I was；而第二句中的you be是什么东东呀？不是you are, 也不是you will be, 什么you be？！”
其实上面的句子都是一种称为 Subjunctive 类型的句子。Subjunctive Mood 有的书译为“假设语气”，虽不很贴切；但在相当大的程度上，告诉我们这种句子的特点，Subjunctive Mood中文译作“虚拟语气”，似乎不及“假设语气”那么容易明白。它是一种动词形式，表示说话人的某种假设、愿望、怀疑、猜测、建议等含义。
基本上，虚拟语气可分为虚拟现在(Subjunctive Present)和虚拟过去(Subjunctive Past)两种；但它们和时态(Tenses)上所指的现在时态(Present Tense)和过去时态(Past Tense)是有所不同的。
虚拟现在的句子，在任何时候都要用动词的原形(root form)，就算是第三人称(he, she, it)也是如此。如：
1.1 现在时态(Simple Present)
I work ---- I work
you work ---- you work
he works ---- he work (注意到了吗，是work，不是works)
she works ---- she work (不是she works 喔）
it works ---- it work (同样不是it works 喔)
we work ---- we work
they work ---- they work
1.2 现在进行时态(Present Continuous)
I am working ---- I be working (注意用的是be，怪怪的!)
you are working ---- you be working
he is working ---- he be working
she is working ---- she be working
it is working ---- it be working
we are working ---- we be working
they are woring ---- they be working
1.3 现在完成时态(Present Perfect)
I have worked ---- I have worked
you have worked ---- you have worked
he has worked ----- he have worked (用的还是have喔)
she has worked ---- she have worked
it has worked ---- it have worked
we have worked ---- we have worked
they have worked ---- they have worked
1.4 现在完成进行时态(Present Perfect Continuous)
I have been working ---- I have been working
you have been working ---- you have been working
he has been working ---- he have been working (是he have, 不是he has )
she has been working ---- she have been working
it has been working --- it have been working
we have been working ---- we have been working
they have been working ---- they have been working
2.1 过去时态(Simple Past)
I worked ---- I worked
you worked ---- you worked
he worked ---- he worked
she worked ---- she worked
it worked ---- it worked
we worked ---- we worked
they worked ---- they worked
2.2 过去进行时态(Past Continuous)
I was working ---- I were working （注意是I were）
you were working ---- you were working
he was working ---- he were working (是he were 喔)
she was working ---- she were working
it was working ---- it were working
we were working ---- we were working
they were working ---- they were working
2.3 过去完成时态(Past Perfect)
I had worked ---- I had worked
you had worked ---- you had worked
he had worked ---- he had worked
she had worked ---- she had worked
it had worked ---- it had worked
we had worked ---- we had worked
they had worked ---- they had worked
(耶，全部都用 had ! )
2.4 过去完成进行时态(Past Perfect Continuous)
I had been working ---- I had been working
you had been working ---- you had been working
he had been working ---- he had been working
she had been working ---- she had been working
it had been working ---- it had been working
we had been working ---- we had been working
they had been working ---- they had been working
(全部都是 had been 喔）
1. May you be happy. (注意那个be ) 祝你幸福。
2. May you have a good time.
3. May the friendship between us last long,
4. Have a good journey! 祝你旅途愉快！
3.虚拟语气动词用一般现在时态(Simple Present)，如：work, be , go
4.否定形式的命令语气，可用助动词 do，加上 not。
1. Work !
2. Work harder !
3. Be more alert ! (虚拟语气动词Be)
4. You go out !
5. Do not work so hard. (do not 表示否定的虚拟语气)
6. Don't be afraid. (口语中常用don't 代替do not)
1. Would you be kind enough to show me the way to the post office.
2. It would be better for you not to stay up too late.(表示委婉)
1. I wish (that可省略,下同)I knew the answer to the question.
(wish, 动词过去式 knew)
2. I wish it were spring in my hometown all the year around.
3. I wish I were a bird.(wish, were)
4. When she was at the party,she wished she were at home.
5. Now that he is in China, he wishes he understood Chinese.
6. When we begin the trip, they will wish they were with us.
(will wish, 过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不和我们在一起)
5.1.2 过去情况的虚拟，从句动词用"had + 过去分词"（时间上较前):
1. I wish (that可省略，下同)I hadn't wasted so much time.
2. He wishes he hadn't lost the chance.
3. We wished he had spoken to us.
(wished，had + spoken)(事实上他并没同我们讲)
4. I wish you had called earlier.
(wish，had + called)(事实上已迟了)
5. They will wish they had listened to us sooner.
(will wish,had + listened)(事实上并不如此)
5.1.3 将来情况的虚拟(表示将来的主观愿望)，从句动词用“would/should/could/might + 动词原形”(时间上较后)
1. I wish it would stop raining.(虚拟动词would+动词原形stop)
2. I wish you would be quiet.(would + be)
3. You wished she would arrive the next day.(would + arrive)
4. I wish she would change her mind.(would + change)
5. He will wish we would join him the following week.(would + join)