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    英文语法杂谈(2):虚拟语气



    作者:龙为行客 阅读次数:2539


     
     
    [font=Arial][size=2] [/size][/font]虚拟语气的相关语法(Subjunctive Mood)

    5.2 除了wish之外,下列各动词(如 suggest)的后面的虚拟语气宾语从句,谓语用:
    “should + 动词原形”表示建议(suggest)、坚持(insist)等虚拟语气:
    * suggest (建议),recommend (推荐),advise (劝告),propose (建议)
    * insist (坚持),consent (允诺)
    * decide (决定),order (命令)
    * request (要求),demand (要求),desire (期望),ask (要求)
    * maintain (主张),urge (催促)
    1. I suggest that we (should 可省略,下同) start the meeting at once.
     (suggest, should + start) (表示建议立即开会)
    2. The doctor suggested that he (should ) try to lose his weight.
     (suggested, should + try) (表示建议你应该减肥喔)
    3. He insisted that all of us (should) be there on time by any mains.
     (insisted, should + be) (表示坚持,无论如何都要准时到那儿。你再讲也没用哩!)
    4. He insisted that we (should) tell him the news.
     (insisted, should + tell) (表示非要你告诉他不可)
    5. He ordered that the students (should) wash the clothes every week bthemselves.
     (ordered, should + wash) (表示命令学生们每周自己洗衣服)

    六、虚拟语气在表语从句、同位语从句中的用法:
    下列名词后的表语从句或同位语从句,也用“should + 动词原形"”表示虚拟语气:
    * demand (要求),desire (请求),requirment (要求)
    * advice (劝告),recommendation (建议),suggestion (建议)
    * order (命令)
    * necessity (必要地),preference (优先)
    * proposal (计划),plan (计划),idea (办法)
    1. The advice is that we (should 可省略,下同) leave at once.
       (名词advice,should + leave) (表示加以劝告)
    2.  My idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference.
        (idea,should + get) (表示做出主意)
    3.  I make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
        (proposal,should + hold) (表示做出计划)
    七、虚拟语气在主语从句中的用法
      句型:It is (或was) + 形容词(或过去分词) + that …… +should + 动词原形……
      句子:It is natural that she should do so. (形容词natural,should+动词原形do)
    常用的形容词:
    * natural (自然的),appropriate (适当的),advisable (合适的),preferable (更
    可取的),better (更好的)
    * necessary (必须的),important (重要的),imperative (急需的),urgent (急迫
    的),essential (本质的),vital (必不可少的)
    * probable (很可能的),possible (可能的)
    * desirable (极好的)
    常用的过去分词(Past Participle):
    * required (需要的),demanded (要求),requested (被请求的),desired (要求)
    * suggested (建议),recommended (推荐)
    * orderd (命令)
    1. It is necessary that we (should 可省略,下同)have a walk now.
       (necessary,should + have) (表示有需要去散步)
    2.It was necessary that we (should) make everything ready ahead of time.
       (necessary, should + make) (表示有必要事先做好准备)
    3. It is required that nobody (should) smoke here.
       (required, should + smoke) (表示要求不要在此抽烟)
    4. It is important that every pupil (should) be able to understand the
    rule of school.
       (important, should + be) (表示重要的是学生都能了解校规)
    5. It's important that we (should) take good care of the patient.
       (important, should + take) (表示重要的是照顾好病人)
    八、虚拟语气在条件从句(Protasis)中的用法:
    条件从句有两类:(1)真实条件句;(2)虚拟条件句。如果假设情况有可能发生的,就是“真实条件句”。如:
     1. If time permits, we'll go fishing together.
      (如果有时间的话,我们就一起去钓鱼。)
    如果假设的情况与事实相反,则为“虚拟条件句”。如:
     1. If it had rained yesterday, we would have stayed at home.
      (如果昨天下雨的话,我们就会留在家里。)
    这回我们要谈的就是关于“虚拟条件句”的一些句型。
    * 这种句子一般由"从句"(Subordinate Clause)和“主句”(Main Clause)组成。如上例:
     If it had rained yesterday, we would have stayed at home.
     "If it had rained yesterday" 就是“从句”;"we would have stayed at home" 则为“主句”。
    * 无论从句或主句的谓语都要用虚拟语气。它们所用的动词有三种时态(Tenses),就是:现在时态、过去时态、将来时态。
    8.1 与现在事实相反的假设(事情的发生都在同一时间内):
     从句:if + 主语 + 动词的过去式(be 用 were) + ……
     主句:主语 + would (should, could , might) + 动词原形 + ……
     1. If I were you, I would go with him. (从句If I were you, 主句I would go with him.)
     2. If I were you, I should buy it. (从句用过去式动词were,主句用动词原形buy)
     3. If I had time, I would study French. (如果有时间,我会学习法文。)(从句用过去式动词had,主句用动词原形study)
     4. If she knew English, she would not ask me for help. (如果她懂英文,她就不必要我帮了。) (从句用过去式动词knew, 主句用动词原形ask)
     注意:如果动作在进行中,主句要用:"主语 + would be + 进行式动词 + ……"
     5. If they were here, he would be speaking to them now.(从句用过去式动词were, 主句用would be speaking)
    8.2 与过去事实相反的假设(假设从句的事实为过去的事):
     从句:If + 主语 + had +过去完成式动词 + ……
     主句:主语 + would (should, could, might) + have +过去完成式动词 +……
     1. If you had studied harder last term, you could have passed exam. (从句动词用had studied, 主句动词用have passed)
       如果你在上个学期用功一些,你就会在考试中过关了。
     2. If you had taken my advice, you wouldn't have failed in the exam.(从句动词用had taken, 主句动词用have failed)
       如果你当时听从我的劝告的话,你就不会在考试中失败了。
     3. If you had got up earlier, you could have caught the train.(从句动词用had got up, 主句动词用have caught)
      如果你起身得早一点,你就会赶得上火车了。
     4. If it had snowed, I would have skied in the park.(从句动词用had snowed, 主句动词用have skied)
      如果下雪的话,我就可在公园里滑雪了。
    注意:如果动作在进行中,主句要用:"I主语 + would + have + 完成进行式动词
    +……
     5. If they had been here, he would have been speaking to them.(从句动词用had been, 主句动词用have been speaking)
    8.3 与将来的事实可能相反(对将来的事实实现的可能性不大):
      从句:If + 主语 + should (或were) + 动词原形 +……
      主句:主语 + would (could, should, might) + 动词原形 +……
     1. If it should rain, the crops would be saved. (从句动词用should rain,主句动词用 be)
       如果天下雨,庄稼可能就收获了。
     2. If he were to go fomorrow, he might tell you.(从句动词用were to, 主句动词用tell)
      如果明天他走的话,他可能会告诉你。
     3. If he were here, I would give him the books.(从句动词用were, 主句动词用give)
      如果他在这儿,我可能会把书给他。

    注意:如果动作在进行中,从句(不是主句喔)要用:“If + 主语 + 过去进行式动词
    +……”

     4. If she were staying here now, I would let her ride my horse.
       (从句动词用 were staying, 主句动词用let)
       如果她现在留在这儿,我可能会让她骑我的马。
    8.4 从句的 If 有时可省略,那么从句中的动词(were, had, should)就得移到主语前面:
     1. 原句:If she were younger, she would do it.
       去If:Were she younger, she would do it. (把动词were移到主语she的前面)
     2. 原句:If he had tried it, he could have done it.
       去If:Had he tried it, he could have done it. (把had移到主语he的前面)
    8.5 有时虚拟条件句的从句或主句都可以省略其中一个:
     1. I could help you. (只有主句)
     2. If I had time. (只有从句)
     3. She should have come to the meeting. (只有主句)
     4. If he had much more money. (只有从句)
    8.6 有时虚拟条件句的从句和主句地动词动作时态会不一致:
     8.6.1 从句表示过去,主句表示将来:
     If they had started the early morning yesterday, they would be here now.
     8.6.2 从句表示将来,主句表示过去:
     If I were not to make a preparation for my experiment this afternoon, I would have gone to see the film with you last night.
     8.6.3 从句表示过去,主句表示将来:
     If we hadn't made adequate preparations, we shouldn't dare to do the experiment next week.
     8.6.4 从句表示将来,主句表示现在:
     If we shouldn't have an exam this afternoon, I would go shopping now.

    九、其他虚拟语气在句子中的应用:
    9.1 用as if (或as though 好象) 的状语从句,表示与事实相反:
     1. He pretends as if he didn't know the thing at all, but in fact he knows it very well(用过去式表示与现在事实相反的假设)
       他假装好象完全不懂那事,其实他对那事非常了解。
     2. The old man looked at the picture, he felt as though he had gone back to time 20 years ago.(用过去完成式表示与过去相反的事实)
       那老人看着照片,他觉得仿佛回到20年前的时光。
     3. They talked and talked as if they would never meet again.(would + 原形动词meet,表示与将来事实相反)
       他们谈了又谈,仿佛他们不会再相见的样子。
    9.2 用 had hoped 表示原来希望做到而实际上未能实现的事情。
       其宾语从句的谓语要用“would + 动词原形”:
     1. I had hoped that she would go to the U.S. and study there, but she said she liked to stay in China. 我原本希望她到美国去念书,但她说她喜欢留在中国。
    9.3 用 without / but for / in the absence of 表示“要不是”、‘如果没有”,表示条件虚拟句:
     1. Without air, nothing could live.
       要是没有空气,什么也不能生存。
     2. But for your assistance, we could not accomplish it.
       要不是你的帮忙,我们是难有成就的。
     3. In the absence of water and air, nothing could live.
       如果没有水和空气,什么也不能生存。
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