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|[font=Arial][size=2] [/size][/font]分词的相关语法（Participle） |
1. David was lying in bed crying. (逻辑主语David，分词crying)
2. We walked along the banks singing merrily.. (逻辑主语we，分词singing)
1. Having written the letter, I went out to post it. (现在完成式分词having written)
2. Having already seen the film twice, she didn't want to go to the cinema. (having seen)
3.3 用作状语的分词和逻辑主语有“被动关系”，要用过去分词(Past Participle)
1. We went home exhausted(疲惫地). (逻辑主语we, 过去分词exhausted)
2. Encouraged by my teacher, I decided to work hard. (逻辑主语I，过去分词encouraged)
3.4 用作状语的分词和逻辑主语有“被动关系”，也可用被动式的现在分词(having been + v-ed)
1. Having been invited to speak, I'll start making preparations tomorrow.(逻辑主语I, 被动式现在分词having been invited)
3.5 有的分词在句子中没有逻辑主语，这类特别分词有：regarding 关于，barring 除……以外，concerning 关于，granting /granted(that) 假定、即使，presuming 假定，admitting (that) 承认， considering考虑到，assuming 假设，seeing that 考虑到，supposing (that) 假定，given (that)考虑到、如果……
1. He did poorly in his examinations, considering how hard he had atudiedfor them.
2. Granted that he has enough money to buy the house, it doesn't meanhe's going to do so.
3. He asked me questions concerning my health.
taking...into consideration 考虑到，judging by /from 从……判断，talking about 说到……，speaking of 说到……，looking at 考虑到、着眼于，generally speaking 一般说来，allowing for 考虑到……
1. Generally speaking, boys are more interested in such activities that girls.
2. Allowing for the deficiencies(不足), the show is a success.
1. Being a student, she likes to help others. (being 作student 的状语)
2. Wearing a new pair of glasses, she can read easily. (wearing 作glasses的状语)
3. She is there waiting for us. (状语waiting，逻辑主语she)
4. Told by the teacher, she knew she was wrong. (分词told 用过去式分词表示被动)
1. The game is interesting. (interesting )
2. They are interested in model car. (interested)
3. The vase is broken. (broken)
4. The rice is cooked. (cooked)
1. I saw him walking in the street. (动词saw, 分词walking)
2. He kept water boiling. (kept，boiling)
3. I met him coming down the street. (met, coming)
4. I heard them singing in the classroom. (heard, singing)
5. We found the baby crying. (found, crying)
六、“have + ... + v-ed”表示过去分词的动作非主语所属
1. I have my hair cut. (过去分词 cut 的主语不是 I )
2. The girl has her television repaired. (不是由女孩修理电视机）
3. We have our house painted. (油漆房屋的可不是我们)
七、分词的否定形式(not + v-ing)、(not + having + v-ed)
1. Not knowing what to do next, she stopped to wait.
2. Not having finished the homework, the pupil doesn't dare to go to school.
1. The bridge being built will be completed next year. (bridge being built)
9.1 被动式(being + v-ed)
1. He dislikes being interrupted(被打岔) in his speech.
2. They couldn't stand being treated(被对待) like that.
9.2 完成式 (having + v-ed)
1. We regret having been unable to inform you of the meeting.
2. The students' having done(完成) the work so well made us very happy.
9.3 完成式的被动语态 (having been + v-ed)
1. I heard of his having been chosen(被选为) to be the coach of the team.
2. Some of our customers complained of having been treated(被对待) rudely.
9.4 在动词 need, want, require, deserve 之后的动名词（作为宾语），要用主动语态来表示被动的意思。
1. The flowers in the garden want watering(需要浇水）.
2. That's one of those questions that really don't need answering(不需回答).
1. sleeping car 卧车
2. walking stick 手杖
3. printing shop 印务馆
4. reading room 阅读室
5. swimming pool 泳池
6. washing machine 洗衣机
7. dining room 饭厅
例：1. In case customers encounter difficulties, they should ring thefollowing number:...
2. In case of encountering difficulties, customers should ring thefollowing number:...
第二个句子的“In case of”动名词短句(Gerund Phrase) 取代第一个句子的“In case”副词子句。下列都是这类例子：
1. In spite of doing his best, the pupil was reproached. (In spite of )
2. Despite coming in time, the visitors were not admitted. (despite)
3. For all his arguing, the teacher could not convince us. (for all)
4. The fireman distinguished himself by doing his duty to the utmost. (by)
5. In sending us the book you proved to be reliable. (In)
6. Instead of blaming the boy, the teacher encouraged him. (instead of )
7. The girl left without saying a word. (without)
8. The boy was blamed for breaking the window. (for)
9. The children got tired from learning too much. (from)
10. After spending the holidays with us, our nephew went back to England. (after)
11. Before going to bed, I opened the window. (before)
12. On arriving at the station, John was welcomed by his friends. (on)
13. Since leaving school, I have not seen my teacher. (since)